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The first known Cech immigrant in America 





A Study of their National, Cultural 

Political, Social, Economic 

AND Religious Life 





^o. I 43 







THE subject of Germanic immigration has been 
treated in all its aspects, in German and in 
English alike. Literature relating to the settling of 
the Scandinavians, notably Swedes, is considera- 
ble. The achievements of the Irish, the English, and 
the Dutch have been recorded in detail by numer- 
ous writers. That the story of Spanish colonization 
is adequately described goes without saying, for the 
Spaniards, like the Dutch, the English, and in a 
lesser degree the French, were history-makers on a 
large scale. The large influx of Jews to the United 
States within the last three decades has stimulated 
scholars of the Hebrew race to study more inten- 
sively than ever before their past here. 

What has been written on the theme of Cech im- 
migration? In English very little. Emily Greene 
Balch's volume, Our Slavic Fellow Citizens, dis- 
cusses not Cechs alone, but all the Slavs; besides, 
Miss Balch devotes the greater portion of her book 
to the consideration of her favorite subject, econ- 
omy. My volume aims to throw light, not only on 
the economic condition of the Cech immigrant, but 
on his national, historic, religious, cultural, and 
social state as well. 

Considerable has, of course, been written, here 
and abroad, on the various phases of what the 


Cechs loosely call their "national life" in America, 
although a full, connected story of the transatlantic 
branch of the race is still unwritten even in the 
national tongue. 

In 1908 the St. Louis Hlas published the Dejiny 
Cechuv Americkych (History of the Cechs in Amer- 
ica), by Dr. John Habenicht of Chicago. The vol- 
ume is not sufficiently dispassionate to fall within 
the more rigid definition of historical writing. It 
is frankly propagandist literature and ardently 

In compiling this work I have made generous use 
of the memoirs of pioneers in the Almanac Ameri- 
kdn. Useful data are stored in the Pamdtniky (Me- 
morials) which various lodges publish from time to 
time to commemorate some noted event in their 
existence. Old newspaper files have yielded abun- 
dant, if not always authoritative, information. I 
have had access to the files of the Slavic, Dennice 
Novoveku, Pokrok Zdpadu, Delnik Americky, New 
Yorske Listy, and other papers. Of the greatest help 
to me were notes which I had collected for my 
work, Padesdt Let Ceskeho Tisku v Americe (Fifty 
Years of Bohemian Letters in America, published 
in 191 1). This volume contains a complete list of 
books, brochures, and newspapers beginning with 
January i, i860, the day and year the first Cech 
language paper made its appearance on this con- 
tinent. To Mr. Milos Ller, of the University of 
Prague, I am indebted for valuable material which 



he extracted from the files of Prague papers bearing 
on emigration between the years 1848-60. 

Statistics are not always dependable. In five or 
ten years the figures here quoted will be out of date. 
America, which still feels the growing pains of 
national adolescence, has a way of confounding 
the statistician. When I finger the pages of Dr. 
John Palacky's book, Spojene Stdty Sever oamericke 
(United States of North America), I can hardly 
realize that the mass of figures contained in that 
volume relate to the land in which I live — so un- 
like is the America of 1919 and Palacky's America 
of 1876. 

I do not describe Cech America as a tourist who 
passes hurriedly through a foreign country and 
records the impressions of the moment; I write as a 
close relative, a member of the family, who for 
thirty-nine years has lived uninterruptedly in Cech 
America or very close to its border. I know it in its 
holiday attire and in its working clothes. I know its 
faults, which are many, and its virtues, which, I 
like to think, outweigh them. A residence of seven 
years in Omaha, spent partly in a newspaper office, 
partly in a law oflftce, gave me a rare opportunity to 
observe at close range the evolution of the virile 
settler of the Middle West, while life in large cities 
(in New York since 1894) has brought me in direct 
and daily contact with the men and women who 
live in those queer but cozy corners of America 
called, somewhat patronizingly, "foreign quarters." 



The Cechs sent to America not adventurers, but 
bona-fide settlers almost synchronously with the 
Dutch and earlier than the Swedes. Driven from 
their native land in the first half of the seventeenth 
century, Cech Protestant exiles are known to have 
settled in New Amsterdam, the present New York, 
and among the English in Virginia. The real Cech 
immigration, however, dates from 1848, the year of 
revolutionary changes in Austria, and it is of that 
immigration that the volume. The Cechs (Bohemi- 
ans) in America, chiefly treats. 

Most of the men and women who have taken a 
leading part in the affairs of American Cechs I have 
known personally, many of them intimately. My 
list of friends and acquaintances has included 
Charles Jonds, F. B. Zdrubek, L. J. Palda, John 
Rosicky, Bartos Bittner, Josephine Humpal- 
Zeman, Frances Gregor, Vojta Masek, John Bo- 
recky, John Karel, Paul Albieri, Edward Rosewater, 
Frank Skarda, John A. Oliverius, Vdclav Snajdr. 
Of these Vaclav Sna jdr is the only one now living. 
I exchanged letters with Joseph Pastor and corre- 
sponded with the widow of Frank Mracek, latterly 
a resident of Odessa, Russia, and with the widow 
of Vojta Naprstek. I never had the good fortune to 
meet Ladimir KlAcel, but heard sufficient concern- 
ing that unhappy philosopher from my brother to 
enable me to form a fairly accurate picture of the 
purely human side of the man. The younger men 
and women who now stand at the helm of affairs 



are known to me personally or through their work. 
Thirty-odd years ago Cech America was so Lilli- 
putian that it was possible, without consulting 
Who 's Who, for every one to know every one else. 
If a meeting of nationals was held, all the men of 
consequence could be crowded under a common 
roof, if not conveniently seated around one table. 
Those were the days when the newspaper editors 
were the sole intellectuals of the nation. The poli- 
ticians, big and little, lawyers, teachers, physicians," 
merchants, and others who presently clamor for 
their share of sunshine and popularity, were yet 
unborn or were striplings, attending school, when 
the veteran journalists like Jonas ruled Cech 

As appears from the context, the volume dis- 
cusses the Cech branch of the Cechoslovak nation 
only; the Slovaks are not included, for although 
the two race groups live side by side in several ur- 
ban centers, each attends its own churches, patron- 
izes its own club-houses, joins its own fraternal and 
other societies, lives its separate life. The Cech im- 
migration was fully thirty years old when the Slo- 
vaks began coming in. Their habitats are not the 
same. The Slovaks, as is shown by statistics, are 
massed in Pennsylvania, where the Cech population 
is small by comparison. 

Is the Cech an asset or a liability to his adopted 

"Our nation," comments Charles Veleminsky, a 



pedagogue who traveled in the United States, "has 
ever been idealistic, sacrificing all for its ideals. 
Idealism is the most precious offering of the Cech 
immigrant to America. Without ideals even prac- 
tical America is unthinkable." The Declaration of 
Independence of the Cechoslovak Nation pledges 
itself to uphold the ideals of modern democracy "as 
they have been the ideals of the Cechs for cen- 
turies." From Hus to Havlicek the Cech has waged 
a ceaseless, though at times a losing war against 
the sinister powers of reaction. In the course of the 
struggle and directly due to it, his native land lost 
political independence, but the conqueror could not 
stifle in him the lofty ideals he inherited from his 
Hussite forebears. 

The Cech is self-reliant. Note the names of the 
deputies in the former Austrian Parliament, or 
those now guiding the affairs of the Republic: Dr. 
Rieger, Dr. Pacak, Dr. Kramdr, Dr. Soukup, Mr. 
Klofa£ — all commoners. On the other hand, ob- 
serve, for the sake of comparison, who had been 
the spokesmen of the Magyars in the Hungarian 
Parliament: Count Karolyi, Count Andrdssy, 
Count Batthydny, Count Tisza, Count Apponyi. 
The native Cech nobility practically disappeared 
in the seventeenth century. The aristocracy owning 
estates in Bohemia was, up to the time of the war, 
almost without exception Austrian in sentiment, 
ultramontane in politics, feudal in traditions. Stern 
necessity has taught the Cech commoner to rely on 


none save himself, to think and act for himself. It 
is astounding what progress in art, Hterature, com- 
merce, and industry he has made within the last few 
decades of national revival unaided by aristocracy 
and hampered, if anything, by the Vienna Govern- 

He is intelligent. At Ellis Island he has estab- 
lished two records. Of all the races from the old 
Dual Empire, Germans and Magyars not excepted, 
the Cech was the lowest in the percentage of illit- 
erates — one and one half per cent — and the 
highest in the percentage of skilled labor. If it is 
true, as their enemies contend, that the Slavs are 
as yet barbarians, the Cech, who in culture is fore- 
most among the Slavs, can boast of being the first 
barbarian in Europe. 

Thomas Capek 

Bedford Park, New York City 
October, 1919 


I. Seventeenth-Century Immigration i 

II. Eighteenth-Century Immigration . 19 

III. Nineteenth-Century Immigration 


IV. The Distribution of the Stock 59 
V. Trades, Business, Professions 69 

VI. The Immigrant as a Liability 94 

VII. Through Intermarriage into the 

Melting- Pot 96 

VIII. All Born in America Belong to 

America 100 

IX. New Bohemia in America 105 

X. Gamin Etymology — Pantata — Cor- 
ruption of the Language — Ameri- 
canization OF Names 114 

XI. Rationalism: A Transition from the 

Old to the New 119 

XII. Socialism and Radicalism 137 

XIII. The Cech as a Soldier 155 

XIV. Journalism and Literature 164 

XV. Musicians, Artists, Visitors from 



XVI. The Language Schools: Teaching of 

Cech 241 

XVII. The Churches 246 

XVIII. Fraternal and Other Societies 254 

XIX. The Part the American Cechs took in 

THE War of Liberation 265 

Appendix 279 

Index 285 


Augustine Herrman Frontispiece 

Map of Virginia and Maryland, 1670, by Aug- 
ustine Herrman, with Portrait by Himself 

Two American Cechophiles: Robert H. Vickers 
and Will S. Monroe 

The Cechoslovak Legation in Washington: 
Commissioner Charles Pergler and Part of 
his Staff 

Racine (Cech Bethlehem) in 1850 

Invitation to a Beseda and Amateur Theatri- 
cals held at Racine, October, 1861 

Cech Residential Section, Chicago 

Cech Business Quarter, Chicago 

The Pathfinders: Vdclav Pohl, John 
Francis Korbel, John Borecky 

The Pathfinders: A. L. Slesinger, Joseph Kri- 
kava, Joseph L. Le§ikar, the Hubdc^ek 
Brothers 52 

Sokol Slovanskd Lipa Hall, Chicago 56 

C.S.P.S. Hall, Chicago 56 

Cech-American Hall, Milwaukee 5^ 









Plzensky Sokol Gymnastic Association Hall, 
Chicago 56 

Map showing the Distribution of the Stock in 
the United States 60 

Two Towns with Cech Names and Cech In- 
habitants: Pisek, North Dakota, and Proti- 
vin, Iowa 66 

The First Lawyers: Joseph Sosel, Cedar Rap- 
ids, Iowa; J. W. Sykora, Cleveland; John 
Karel, Kewaunee, Wisconsin, former U.S. 
Consul-General to Petrograd; August Hai- 
dusek. La Grange, Texas 84 

Pioneer Physicians: A. M. Dignowity, San 
Antonio; Adolph Chl^dek, Chicago; John 
Habenicht, Chicago; Edward J. Schevcik, 
New York 86 

Congressmen of Cech Nationality: Thomas F. 
Konop, Anthony Michdlek, John J. Babka, 
Adolph J. Sabath 88 

Types of American Scholars of Cech Parent- 
age: Dr. Paul J. Hanzlik, Dr. John Zeleny, 
' Dr. F. G. Novy, Dr. Alois F. Kovdrik 90 

Dr. Robert J. Kerner 92 

Dr. Bohumil Simek 96 

A Cech Alley in Chicago 106 

Vojta Ndprstek and "Mrs. Josephine," his wife 126 

From a portrait by M. Svabinsk^. 



Ladimir Kldcel 132 

L. J. Palda 138 

Joseph Paces 152 

From a photograph taken in Prague after his final release 
from prison. The face bears the marks of his physical 

The First Number of the Slowan Amerik^nsky 164 

Pioneer Journalists: J. B. Erben, Frank Kori- 
zek, Joseph Pastor, Frank Mr42ek 166 

Charles Jon4§ at Thirty 168 

From a photograph taken in Prague, where he had gone 
to report for the Slavie on the Franco-Prussian War. 

Kristina Korizek, Jones's Bride, at Twenty 168 

From a photograph taken in 1864. 

Jones's Birthplace at Malesov, Bohemia 168 

Newspaper Homes: The Svornost, Chicago; 
The Hlasatel, Chicago; The Hospoddr, 
Omaha 172 

Vaclav Snajdr 178 

Jan Barta Letovsky 1 82 

Anton Malinowski 182 

Malinowski, an agent of the Russian Government, who 
had come to Racine for the purpose, accompanied Letov- 
sky and Mr42ek on their futile expedition to Amur, Si- 
beria, to select a location for a New Bohemia there. 

Charles JonaS 184 

From a photograph taken in 1890, when he was Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Wisconsin. 

Vdclav Snajdr and his brother-in-law Charles 
Jon4§ 188 



Vdclav Snajdr and Joseph V. Slddek l88 

Early Newspapers 192 

Francis B. Zdrijbek 196 

John Rosicky' 198 


John V. Capek 20a 

Professional Women: Catherine M. Capek, 
teacher in Cleveland, 1 878-1 91 8; Josephine 
Humpal-Zeman, social reformer; Frances 
Gregor, author; Dr. Anna F. Novdk, of 
Chicago, the first woman physician of 
Cech nationality 202 

Barto§ Bittner 204 

Dr. Ale§ Hrdligka 206 

Thomas Capek 208 

Charles Pergler 212 

Dr. J. F. Smetanka, Dr. J. E. S. Vojan, Joseph 
Tvrzicky 216 

Clara Vostrovsky Winlow 220 

Early Musicians: Vdclav Kopta, violinist; J. 
J. Kovdrik, viola; J. H. Capek, violinist; 
V. A. Raboch, organist 226 

Anna Drdzdil 230 

Frances R. Janauschek 230 

Charles J. VopiSka of Chicago, United States 
Minister to Rumania 236 



St. Prokop College, Lisle, Illinois 242 

S^rka B. Hrbkova 244 

St. Prokop Church, Chicago 246 

Monsignor Joseph Hessoun 248 

Vincent Pisek, D.D. 250 

Jan Hus Church and Neighborhood House, 
New York 252 

Jan Hus Monument, Bohemia, Long Island 258 

Bethlehem Chapel, Loomis Street, Chicago 258 

Birthplace of the C.S.P.S. 262 

Jacob Mottl's boarding-house and saloon on Ninth Street 
between Soulard and Lafayette Streets, St. Louis, where 
the Cech Slavic Benevolent Society was organized in 

By-Laws and Traveling Pass of the C.S.P.S. 
Brotherhood, issued in 1865 262 

Rev. Oldrich Zldmal 268 

Cechoslovak War Posters, designed by Vojta 
Preissig 274 

Vladimir A. Geringer, United States Trade 
Commissioner to the Cechoslovak Republic 276 


NOTE ON CECH pronunciation 

The diacritic mark occurs on the following letters: k, k, g, I, d" 
(, ii, ?, §, !, fi, fl, </, 2. D and 6 are seldom used. The mark tends 
alike to soften and shade the sound of the letter. 

k is pronounced long as in darling. 

6 as a in care. 

5 as ye in yellow. 

S as eh in cherry. 

f and ^ as ee in tree. 

ii as n in canon. 

f as rsh in Pershing. 

§ as sh in shall. 

ti and fl long as in rule. 

2 as j in the French word jour. 

ch as in the Scottish loch. 






THE Opening act of the drama of the Thirty 
Years' War, which was essentially a struggle 
for supremacy between Protestantism and Cathol- 
icism, was staged in Bohemia. The Bohemian Pro- 
testant Estates in 1619 deposed their ruler and 
elected Frederick of the Palatinate, son-in-law of 
James I of England, as King of Bohemia. One year 
after the coronation ceremony, or to be exact, 
November 8, 1620, the armies of the imperialists 
engaged the Bohemian army in battle near Prague, 
on what is called White Mountain, signally defeat- 
ing it. 

The Battle of White Mountain was destined to 
become the most momentous event in the history of 
Bohemia. It marked the downfall of the nation's 
independence; it was directly responsible for the 
collapse of Protestantism in Bohemia and in coun- 
tries confederated therewith. 

A number of the rebel chiefs fled from the coun- 
try with Frederick; others soon followed the Winter 
King, so that Liechtenstein, Lieutenant-Governor 



of Bohemia, was able to report to his imperial mas- 
ter, on January 17, 1621, that the principal con- 
spirators, to the number of sixty, were already be- 
yond the border. Scores of suspects who could not 
get away in time or who, for some reason or other, 
scorned to save themselves by flight, were appre- 
hended and tried for treason. On June 21, 162 1, 
Unforgettable as the "Bloody Day of Prague," 
twenty-seven of the rebels perished on the block. 
Still others were punished by the confiscation of 
their property, or by prison sentence. 

Those condemned to suffer death were Count 
Joachym Andrew Slik, Director under Frederick 
and Governor of Upper Lusatia; Vdclav Budovec 
of Budova, orator, traveler, and author; Christo- 
pher Harant of Polzic, a soldier and writer whose 
description of a journey to Egypt and Palestine 
is one of the ornaments of Cech literature of the 
seventeenth century; Count Caspar Kaplir of 
Sulevic, an old man of eighty-six; Dr. John Jes- 
senius of Jessen, a distinguished physician, rector 
of the University in Prague, writer and speaker. 
Jessenius was condemned to have his tongue cut 
out, to be beheaded, and to have his body quar- 
tered. The other victims who on that day gave 
their lives for their faith and country were: Prokop 
Dvorecky of Olbramovic, Frederick of Bile, Henry 
Otto of Los, William Konec-Chlumsky, Bohuslav 
of Michalovic, Divi§ Cernin of Chudenic, Valentin 
Kochan of Prachov, Tobias Steffek of Kolodej, 



Christopher Kobr, John Sultys, the mayor of 
Kutn^ Hora, Maximilian Ho§fdlek, the mayor of 
Zatec, Vaclav Jizbicky, Henry Kozel, Andrew Ko- 
cour, Henry Recicky, Michael Vitman, Simon 
Vokdc, Leander Riippel, and George Haunschild. 
The last two were Germans. TheodorSixtof Otters- 
dorf was pardoned at the last moment on the scaf- 
fold. John Kutnaur, councilman of the Old Town 
of Prague, and his father-in-law, Simon Su§icky, 
were hanged from a beam in the window of the Old 
Town Council Hall. Nathanael Vodilansky was 
hanged from a gibbet set up in the center of the 
Old Town Square. "On this day of grief and sor- 
row ^ it seemed that the victors were determined 
to put to the sword the whole of Bohemia and 
their pitiless revenge smote down all those who, 
by reason of their birth, their intellectual or moral 
attainments, their political services, their names, 
or their wealth, had raised themselves to the posi- 
tion of leaders among their people, guardians of the 
nation's traditions and defenders of its rights." 

Count Slavata, a nobleman who himself played 
no inconsiderable part in the terrible drama of anti- 
reformation, and who, on account of his religious 
convictions, cannot be accused of bias, is authority 
for the statement that 36,000 Protestant families, 
including 185 houses of the nobility (some of these 

1 Ernest Denis: Fin de l' Independance Bohcme. Paris, 1890. 
Translated into Cech by Henry VanCura. Prague, 1904; also.AntonIn 
Gindely : History of the Bohemian Rebellion in the Year 161S. Prague, 




houses numbered as many as fifty members each), 
spurning the Emperor's terms, went into exile. 

Historians recognize three stages in the exodus 
of Protestants. The first emigration began in 1621 
when the conqueror ordered the banishment of 
teachers and ministers of the gospel. By reason of 
this edict about a thousand members of these two 
professions were forced to leave the country. 

Next, the wrath of the ruler turned against lay- 
men. He caused their property to be confiscated. 
By the end of 1623 more than six hundred of the 
largest estates had been confiscated. On such a 
stupendous scale was the seizure of property carried 
out that but one fourth of the entire land in Bo- 
hemia remained undisturbed in the hands of the 
original owners. This brought about the second 

Toward the close of 1626 Count Harrach, the 
Archbishop of Prague, submitted to the govern- 
ment a plan for the re-Catholization of Bohemia. 
As amended by the crown, the plan contemplated 
not conversion, but extirpation of the Protestants. 
The imperial patent of July, 1627, provided that 
non-Catholics should not be permitted henceforth 
to live in the country. Now ensued the third emi- 
gration, the most far-reaching of all. 

The exiles at first sought refuge in the neighbor- 
ing states of Saxony, Silesia, Hungary, and Poland. 
As their hopes of an early return to the native 
country waned, they migrated to more distant 



lands: Transylvania, Russia, Sweden, Denmark, 
Hamburg, Holland, England, Brandenburg, Swit- 
zerland. Not a few of the bolder spirits sailed on 
Dutch and English ships to America. 

In Saxony the refugees were numerous enough 
to people whole villages: Johanngeorgenstadt, Alt- 
georgfeld, Neugeorgfeld, Neusalz. Strong city colo- 
nies were formed in Schandau, Freiberg, Annaberg 
(at Annaberg and Freiberg were the centers of 
titled emigrants), Schneeberg, Zwickau, Chemnitz, 
and Dresden. Those professing the Lutheran faith 
favored Pirna and Zittau. In 1691 the Zittau com- 
munity built a church, in which Cech services con- 
tinued to be held till 1846. At Neusalz worship in 
the native language was maintained far into the 
second half of the eighteenth century. At Pirna the 
number of exiles reached 2710 by the end of 1628; 
in 1 63 1 the colony counted 2256 members. By 1639 
only 1700 persons remained. About fifty aristo- 
cratic families settled in Pirna. Dresden received 
the first contingent in 1622. Services in Cech were 
first permitted to be held in Dresden in 1650, and 
the congregation held together until 1845, when a 
German-speaking pastor took charge of the parish. 

Bishop Komensky could truly say that his was a 
scattered flock. Statesmen, scholars, teachers, di- 
vines, soldiers, artisans, the flower of the nation, 
were forced "to eat the bitter bread of banish- 

Doctor Mathias Borbonius (Burda) of Borben- 



hayn, Latin poet, and Paul Strdnsky of Zapskd 
Stranka, author of the Respuhlica BohemicB 
(printed by the Elzevir Press in Leyden), sought 
asylum in the city of Thorn. George Holik, writer, 
resided in Germany, publishing at Wittenberg, in 
German, the Blutige Thrdnen des hochbedrdngten 

Jacob Jacobeus of Kutnd Hora, author of a short 
Church History of Bohemia (published in Amster- 
dam), retired to Holland. 

Daniel Skreta, a Director of the Revolution, 
earned his living as City Clerk in Danzig. 

John Raik became professor of medicine at Up- 
sala, Sweden; Philemon taught history at Bremen. 
F. Natus, Orientalist, died in Braunschweig. Vd- 
clav Clemens, humanist (from his birthplace also 
called 2ebr^cky, Zebracenus), dwelled from time 
to time in Holland, Danzig, and Sweden. He died 
in the last-named country, a pensioner of Chancel- 
lor Oxenstierna. 

Bishop John Amos Komensky established him- 
self in Holland. Other refugees of note who made 
Holland their home were Doctor HaberveSl of Hab- 
ernfeld, author of numerous works, one of which, 
Bellum Bohemicum ah Anno 1617 was issued at 
Leyden; Daniel Kohout, Director of the Revolu- 
tion; Paul Skala of Zhor, author of The Church His- 
tory, Church Chronology, and other learned books; 
Paul Jesin of BezdSdice, jurist and writer; Paul 
Kaplir of Sulevic, one of the commanders of the 



Bohemian Army; Vdclav William Roupovsky of 
Roupov, jurist. 

Ferdinand Charles Svihovsky of Risenberg died 
in Amiens, Adam Loksan of LokSan, in Sedan. 

The most famous exile who made his home in 
England was Vaclav Hollar of Pr^chen, etcher. 
Some twenty-four hundred plates bear the name 
of Wenceslaus Hollar Bohemus, or Wenceslaus Hol- 
lar of Prague. Hollar died in 1677 in London. An- 
other distinguished wanderer to England was Simon 
Partlic (Partlicius) of Spicberk, mathematician and 

Samuel Martinius of Drazov, traveler, writer, 
theologian, leader of the Lutheran party among his 
countrymen, took up an abode in Germany. 

Henik of Valdstein, a Director of the Revolution, 
died in Thorn. 

Charles of 2erotin, author and statesman, served 
the King of Denmark in a high capacity at court. 

Tobias Steffek of Kolodej accepted service with 
the Prince of Anhalt. 

Radslav Vchynsky of Vchynic and Tetov (or 
Kinsky, as the family name is now written), Direc- 
tor of the Revolution, died at Leyden. A poet of 
acknowledged ability, Vchynsky is said to have 
been a master of eight languages. 

The Saxon family, von Ronau, traces its ancestry 
to John Albrecht Krinecky of Ronov, a man of 

Von Treitschke, the German historian and pub- 



Heist, also claims to be descended from a family of 
Cech exiles. So does General Woyrsch, who com- 
manded a German army on the Polish front. 
Woyrsch's forebears were the Vojirs, an ancient 
and honorable family. 

Thomas V. Bilek ^ enumerates fifty lords and 
knights who accepted commissions in the Swedish 
army alone. 

Count Hendrich Mates of Thurn attained the 
rank of field marshal; four rose to the rank of gen- 
eral, Zdenko, Count of Hodic, Vaclav Ferdinand 
Sadovsky of Sloupno, Wolf Colon of Fels, Frederick 
Sobeticky of Sobetic. Colonels and lieutenant- 
colonels were: Jaroslav Count Kinsky, Vdclav 
Cabelicky of Sou tic, Adam Berka of Dube, Henry 
Frederick of Stampach, Mathias Jizbicky, Vaclav 
Zdborsky of Brloh, Henry Pgtipesky of Chys, and 
Nicholas of Techenic. Two were brevetted majors, 
eleven captains, mostly of cavalry, two quarter- 
master-generals, thirteen officers belonging to vari- 
ous lines of the service. 

Exiles belonging to the military class joined as 
volunteers the armies of the state in which they 
happened to be living. Many enlisted in the Danish 
army; the greater part, however, made common 
cause with the Swedes, "shedding their blood," to 
quote the language of a historian, "for allies who 
afterward betrayed them." 

* Thomas V. Bilek: Reformace Katolickd, p. 176. Exile of non- 
Catholic nobility from the country. Prague, 1892. 



The first known emigrant to America by way of 
a Dutch port was Augustine Herrman.' "Herrman 
came to New York in 1633, in the employment of 
the West India Company," says Charles Payson 
Mallery.'^ "Three years later he was appointed by 
the Director and Council of New Netherlands, one 
of the Nine Men, a body of citizens selected to as- 
sist the government by their counsel and advice." 
Mallery states that he was "a man of good educa- 
tion, a surveyor by profession, skilled in sketching 
and drawing, an adventurous and enterprising 
merchant, . . . the first beginner of the Virginia 
tobacco trade." Some time in 1660 he moved from 
New York, where he owned land along the present 
Pearl Street, to Bohemia Manor in Maryland. 
This manor consisted of some twenty thousand 
acres in Cecil and New Castle Counties and it was 
granted by Lord Baltimore in recognition of serv- 
ices rendered by Herrman in drawing the map of 
"Virginia and Maryland. As it is Planted and In- 
habited this present Year 1670 Surveyed and Ex--- 
actly Drawne by the Only Labour and Endeavour 
of Augustin Herrman, Bohemiensis." 

Of Herrman's early life prior to his appearance in 
New Netherland, reports are conflicting. An Ameri- 
can genealogist thinks he was born in Prague in 

* Dutch chroniclers spell the name indifferently: Herman, Herr- 
man, Harman, Heerman, Hermans. 

* Charles Payson Mallery: Ancient Families of Bohemia Manor; 
their Homes and their Graves. 74 pp. The Historical Society of Dela- 
ware. Wilmington, 1888. 


1605 and that his father's name was Augustine 
Ephraim. A Cech writer (Korensky) has expressed 
the beHef that Herrman might have been a scion of 
a noble family. 

In the Memorial Book of the Town of Mseno 
(Bohemia) Litt.D., p. 39, the following entry is 
recorded: "a.d. 1621, the Sunday before Christ's 
birth, on a cold day, our beloved pastor, Abraham 
Herzman, went into exile, with his family to the 
City of 2itava (Zittau). His noble-minded and 
pious wife did not live to see this humiliation, hav- 
ing died of grief one month before his departure. 
. . . Before the parish house waited a vehicl'e, iq 
which sat the entire family, th^at is, son Augustine 
and three daughters. The pastor blessed his flock 
and followed the conveyance on foot, the people 
meanwhile chanting, ' From the depths of my sor- 
rows, I appeal to Thee, Oh Lord,' and accompany- 
ing their minister to the village of Bezdedice." ^ 

If the Augustine Herzman of Mseno, disregard- 
ing the slight variation in the spelling of the sur- 
name, is not the Augustine Herrman of Bohemia 
Manor, it is, admittedly, a remarkable coincidence, 
in date and name. 

1 Misled by Herrman's German-sounding name, German-Ameri- 
can writers, notably Kapp, Faust, and Cronau, have appropriated 
Herrman as their own. This is an error which refutes itself. Tens of 
thousands of Cechs bear German names, just as there are tens of 
thousands of kern deutsch Germans, whose patronymics are unmis- 
takably Slavic. Why should Herrman have signed himself on docu- 
ments, as he did on his map of Virginia and Maryland, Bohemian, 
had he been a German? The inconsistency of this claim is obvioua 



Herrman's fondness for the land of his nativity 
amounted to an obsession. In addition to his nam- 
ing the first tract of land which he received from ' 
Lord Baltimore, Bohemia Manor, he named other 
land grants, Three Bohemia Sisters and Little Bo- 
hemia. The supposition is not unreasonable that 
Herrman contemplated founding in America a col- 
ony of compatriots. The Swedes in Delaware had 
established a New Sweden, the Dutch New Nether- 
land, the Puritans New England, why not a New 
Bohemia? Herrman's Bohemia Manor contained 
sufficient elbow-room for a good-sized settlement. 
In a New York deed ^ he describes himself as 
Augustine Herrman of Nova Bohemia, in the Prov- 
ince of Maryland. To Herrman the misery of his 
co-religionists in Europe was well known, for he 
had been one of them. How successful he was with 
his colonization plan and how many, if any, Cech 
families found a home on his estate, local historians 
do not inform us. 

By his will, executed in 1684 he directed that in 
the event of his family becoming extinct, a portion 
of Bohemia Manor should go to the State of Mary- 
land for the purpose of founding a Protestant school, 
college and hospital, to be known by the name Au- 
gustine Bohemia.^ 

* Liber A, p. 145, July 9, 1672, New York City Register's Office. 

2 "Augustine Herrman, Bohemian, 1605-1 686." A paper prepared 
by General James Grant Wilson, of New York, an honorary member 
of the New Jersey Hist, Soc. Read at a meeting of the Society, May 
15, 1890. New Jersey Hist. Soc. Proceedings, v. 21, no. 2, pp. 21-34. 



Genealogists agree that Frederick Philipse, as the 
name was spelled at that period, or Vrederyck 
Felypsen, founder of the noted American family of 
that name, was a native of Bohemia. Hon. John 
Jay, diplomatist and jurist, has this to say of the 
Philipses: "The first ancestor of this family who 
settled in this country was Frederick Flypsen, a 
native of Bohemia, where his family, being Pro- 
testants, were persecuted. His mother, becoming a 
widow, was constrained to quit Bohemia with him 
and her other children. She fled to Holland with 
what little she could save from the wreck of their 
estate. The amount of that little not admitting her 
to provide better for Frederick, she bound him to 
a carpenter, and he became an excellent workman. 
He emigrated to New York, which was then under 
the Dutch Government, but in what year I am not 
informed." According to another source ^ PhiHpse's 
father "was the honorable Viscount Felyps of Bo- 
hemia, who sprang from the ancient viscounts of 
that name and country." Again: "Besides their 
high rank as nobles, they appear to have held the 
office of grand veneurs or keepers of the deer forests 
in Bohemia, as there is still preserved in the family 
the color and badge of office, consisting of a gold 
chain set with amethysts, diamonds, rubies and 
emeralds to which was suspended a deer beautifully 
chased in gold." 

* Robert Bolton : History of the County of Westchester, from its First 
Settlement, p. 508. New York, 1848. 







Singularly enough, the register of Bohemian no- 
bility of the seventeenth century does not contain 
the name Philipse or Felypsen. Neither does any one 
bearing that name appear to have suffered through 
confiscation of property. Thomas V. Bilek's His- 
tory of Bohemian Confiscation after the year 1618, 
sets forth the name of every landowner whose 
property had been confiscated, but Philipses are not 
among them. Then, too, the rank of viscount was 
all but unknown in Bohemia. A more likely explan- 
ation is — providing, of course, that Philipses be- 
longed to the nobility — that they had discarded 
their Cech name, difficult to pronounce by foreign- 
ers, assuming instead their given name, Philip. 
"The surname Felypsen," remarks Bolton, "is a 
patronymic from Philip, hence the English substi- 
tute Frederick Philipse, which at an early period 
became the adopted name of the family" (page 


Chroniclers refer to PhiHpse as "Bohemian mer- 
chant prince." He was one of the wealthiest men of 
his day in the American colonies. The Manor Hall 
in Yonkers, still standing, was one of the residences 
of the family; another seat, at Philipsburg, bore the 
name "Castle Philips." The story is told that 
George Washington fell in love with pretty Mary 
Philipse, a descendant of this illustrious family. 

According to one version, Philipse traveled to 
America in 1647, on the same ship with Stuj^esant. 
It is certain that in 1653 the family was already in 



New Amsterdam, for in that year Philipse is men- 
tioned as one of the appraisers of the property of 
Augustine Herrman. This, by the way, would indi- 
cate that Herrman and Philipse knew each other. 

Records prove that other natives of Bohemia lived 
in New Amsterdam besides Herrman and PhiHpse.^ 

In the Reformed Church was married, December 
10, 165 1, Herrman to Johanna Varlet. Another rec- 
ord of marriage of a Bohemian or rather a Mora- 
vian, which is one and the same, reads: "1645. 26 
Febr. Jeurian Fradell, j. m. Uyt Moravian en Tryn 
Herkser." Who would suspect a Bohemian under 
the name of Fradell? 

A few years later, another Fradell, Jeuraen Simon 
Fradell, weduwanaer (widower), was married in the 
same church. From the records it is not clear 
whether the entry refers to Jeurian Fradell, who 
had become a widower, or to another Fradell, Jeu- 
rian Simon. 

An entry in the Dutch Church notes the mar- 
riage of a girl by the name of Hollar, This might 
have been a relative of Wenceslaus Hollar, the 
etcher. Adam Unkelba, who was married in the 
church on September 12, 1660, was, without doubt, 
a Cech. Styntje Hermans, who contracted wedlock 
in the Dutch Church, May 14, 1655, with CorneHs 
Hendrickszen, may have been Herrman's sister, for 

* Berthold Fernow, editor: Marriages from 163Q to 1801 in the Re- 
formed Dutch Church; records of New Amsterdam from 1653 to 1674. 
Published by the City of New York. 



the Memorial Book of Mseno mentions him as hav- 
ing sisters. What about John Kostlo, a resident of 
New Amsterdam? This name is neither Dutch nor 
English. * 

The Dutch Government commissioned one Lo- 
ketka to go overseas and report on the condition 
of New Netherland. Loketka, presumably a Cech, 
sent an exhaustive report to his home government. 
Whether Loketka subsequently settled here or re- 
turned to Holland is not known. 

It is more than probable that William Paca, one 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence 
for Maryland, was of Cech extraction. Genealogists 
are inclined to believe that Paca is of Italian or 
Portuguese origin; yet if they have no other proof 
for their belief save the supposedly Latin structure 
of the name, they will be surprised to learn that the 
cognomen Paca, root and termination, is Cech. 
Pacov is the name of a town in Bohemia; Paca, 
Pacdk, Pacovsky, Pacalt, are family names com- 
mon in Bohemia. Might not William Paca have 
been a descendant of a family which settled on 
Herrman's Bohemian Manor in Maryland? ^ 

That Cechs settled in Virginia is attested by ship 
manifests. These immigrants sailing for Virginia 
were beyond doubt Cech : Christopher Donak, who 

1 New Eng. Hist, and Gen. Reg., v. ii, p. 123. 

' In the Pamdtky C^eskych Emigrantu vAmerice, the present author 
expressed the belief that Paca might be of Cech origin. J. V. Nigrin, 
writing to the Chicago daily Svornost, under date July 4i 19H* shares 
the belief. 



purchased land in 1655 in Northampton County; 
John Doza, a fellow passenger of the Donaks, who 
settled in the same county; Anna Dubes, who had 
taken land in 1652 in Lancaster County. Other 
immigrants were John Duch, settling in 1650 
in Northumberland County, and Anna Simco, in 
1653, in the same county.^ It is a gross exaggera- 
tion, however, to say that "between 1650-80 sev- 
eral thousand Cechs came to America, settling in 
the penal colonies of Georgia and Virginia. . . ." ^ 
The Cechs could not have settled in Georgia be- 
tween 1650-80 for the very good reason that Geor- 
gia was first settled by a colony of one hundred and 
twenty whites in 1733. 

That stragglers might have made their way with 
the Puritans to Massachusetts is more than likely; 
the Bohemian Church observed many of the stern 
concepts of religious duties which distinguished the 
Puritans. Matthew Cenig (Cenek) died in Massa- 
chusetts in 1654.^ 

If the names of Elizabeth Baysa, Mary Bunc, 
and Loues (Louis) Standla are Cech, as they seem 
to be, it would go to prove that Cech exiles settled 
in Connecticut.* 

^ George Cabell Greer (clerk, Virginia State Land Office) : 1623- 
66. Early Virginia Immigrants. Richmond, 1912. 

2 Pamdtnik Slovanskych Baptistu v Americe, p. 8. Chicago, 1909. 

' Early Records of Boston; also, New. Eng. Hist, and Gen. Reg., 
V. 10, p. 219. 

* Births, Marriage and Deaths. Original Distribution of the Town 
of Hartford, Connecticut, among the Settlers; also, New. Eng. Hist, 
and Gen. Reg., v. 12, p. 173. 



Samuel Barta/ bearer of a typically Cech name, 
signed a petition dated April 22, 1755, in which 
settlers living along the Kennebec River in Massa- 
chusetts appealed for protection to Governor Shir- 
ley. On the obverse of the petition, the name is 
spelled correctly Barta; on the reverse, however, 
the petitioner is already transformed by the chron- 
icler into Barter. Alexander Barta, evidently a rel- 
ative of Samuel, is on the roster of prisoners who 
were captured by the British in 1777. Alexander, 
too, is spelled carelessly Barta and Barter. John 
Spital, in some documents assumes the anglicized 
name John Spittle.^ 

It is pMDssible that individual exiles had joined the 
Swedes who, under Governor Prins, founded a set- 
tlement on the Delaware River (1638), naming the 
country New Sweden. Soldiers of Cech nationality 
served in the army of Gustavus Adolphus. Always 
friendly, the relations between the Swedes and 
Protestant Cechs were notably close about this 

Unerring traces of Cech exiles lead to one of the 
Barbados, the group of West India Islands which 
the British occupied in 1625. Augustine Herrman, 
it is known, had extensive business interests on the 

* New York Hist, and Gen. Reg., v. 44, pp. 203-04. , 

* Ibid., V. 19, p. 136. 

* "When the Thirty Years' War was brought to a close, Sweden, 
anxious to gain the friendship of all nations, sent Mathias Palbitsky 
to congratulate the King of Spain on the conclusion of peace." 
(Amandus Johnson: The Swedes in America, 1638-1900, v. i, p. 164.) 



island; so did his fellow countryman Frederick 
Philipse. The ship Expedition, bound in Septem- 
ber, 1635, for the Barbados, had aboard one Ed- 
ward Benes, a name peculiarly Cech. In the "True 
and Perfect List of all ye Names of ye Inhabitants 
in ye Parrish of Christ Church, with an Exact 
accompt of all ye Land, white Servants; and Neg's 
[negroes] within ye Said Parrish Taken this 22th 
Decemb 1679," we find three other Cech names: 
John Hudlice, tailor, who shipped from South- 
ampton on the Virginia, Captain John Weare, 
bound for the Barbadoes; Edward Marsan "has 
10 acres and 6 negroes," and Anthony Slany "has 
2 negroes." 



THE resolve of the Moravian Church to found 
colonies overseas marks a distinct epoch in the 
history of Cech emigration in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. These emigrants came with the Germans at 
the time or times when religious ferment had made 
people restless in Central Europe. While the seven- 
teenth-century arrivals had been assimilated by the 
English or the Dutch, according to where they hap- 
pened to settle, the eighteenth-century immigrants 
to Pennsylvania merged into the larger Teutonic 

As told in detail in the preceding chapter, Prot- 
estantism in Bohemia and Moravia had been 
crushed in the first quarter of the seventeenth cen- 
tury; yet what theological writers describe as "the 
hidden seed" was never wholly destroyed. Here 
and there survived individuals and groups of indi- 
viduals (in Bohemia, particularly in the Litomysl 
district) who, notwithstanding stern repression, 
clung in secret to the proscribed faith. To be sure, 
open adherence thereto was out of the question; 
there were no houses of worship in the land and 
none were allowed to be built. Yet what the follow- 
ers of Hus were forbidden to do publicly they could 
not be stopped from practicing clandestinely. De- 



votional literature, which partisans contrived to 
smuggle into the country from across the Saxon 
border, was found to be the most efficacious means 
of keeping together the faithful. The city of Zittau, 
in Saxony, became the recognized book mart of the 
Cech Protestants. There Wenzel Kleych (1678- 
1737) set up a printing shop, and manuals and 
prayer books printed in Kleych 's establishment 
were. distributed in Bohemia despite the watchful- 
ness of the Austrian authorities. Kleych 's most in- 
defatigable assistant in this missionary activity 
was Adolph Christian Pescheck, himself a descend- 
ant of a family of exiles who had settled in Ger- 
many. Another name inseparably associated with 
Kleych's publishing house was that of John Liberda 
(1701-42), a schoolmaster and a pamphleteer, later 
a pastor of a Cech congregation in the suburb of 

The Moravians never quite forgot that Bishop 
Komensky had been at one time a minister of a 
church in Fulnek, Moravia. In 1724 a number of 
families, tiring of endless molestation, decided to 
emigrate from Moravia to Saxony. Herrnhut was 
the name these emigrants gave to a settlement they 
founded on the estate of Count Zinzendorf. 

The families and individuals more or less promi- 
nent among these emigrants from Moravia were: 
Melchior Kunz, Andrew Beyer, Matthew Stach, 
John and David Zeisberger, all of Zauchtenthal; 
the Jaeschke and Neisser families of Sehlen; the 



Grasman family of Senftleben and the Nitschmann 
family of Kunwald.^ 

Though they had come from German-speaking 
towns and villages of Moravia and bore German 
names, it should not be believed that all were Ger- 
man. There were among them co-religionists of 
Cech birth or ancestry as is proved by a list of 
them prepared by George Neisser.'^ 

In border lands where the Slavs and the Teutons 
live side by side mixing more or less freely, the 
patronymic is not an unerring index to the ances- 
try. All are not Slavs who bear Slavic names; con- 
versely, all are not Germans who have German 
names. For what they are worth, we extract from 
Neisser's list those patronymics which by sound or 
structure appear to be Cech-Slavic: 

Anna Neisser, maiden name Anna Holaschek 
(p. 41), Catherine Riedel, maiden name Zudolska 
(p. 43), Thomas Procop, married Anna Neisser (p. 
51), Friedrich Boenisch, married Anna Stach (p. 
54), Matthew Stach (p. 55), Rosina Stach, his wife 
(p- 55). Melchior Kunz, married Judith Holaschek 
(p. 56), George Schmidt, married Maria Wachofsky 
(p- 55)1 Matthew Miksch and Martha Miksch (p. 

* Edmund de Schweinitz: The History of the Church krurnn as the 
Unitas Fratrum. 641 pp. 

' George Neisser: A List of the Bohemian and Moravian Emigrants 
to Saxony. Collected from various sources in print and manuscript; 
begun and compiled at New York from June 2 to July 20, 1772. 
Translated and edited by Albert G. Rau. Transactions of the Mora- 
vian Historical Society, v. ix, parts i and 2. Printed for the Society. 
Bethlehem, Pa., 191 1. Times Publishing Company. 



57), Thomas Stach (p. 58), Michael Schukal and 

Schukal, his wife (p. 60), Paul Jersabeck (p. 

61), Christian Stach, brother or cousin of Matthew 

Stach (p. 61), HukuflF, wife of Zacharias Hu- 

kuff (p. 64), Anna Maria Lawatsch (p. 71), Andrias 
Anton Lawatsch (p. 71), Joseph Bullitschek (p. 75), 
Wenzel Procop (p. 76), Wenzel Till (p. 76), Anna 
Watscheck (p. 77), Zacharias Hirschel, Cech name 
Gecinek, pastor in Berlin (p. ^']), Balthasar Dwor- 
zinsky (p. 78), Lucas Paresch (p. 78), John Kopat- 

schek (p. 78), Neskunda (p. 78), Susanna 

Peiter, daughter of Christopher Fakesch (p. 78), 
George Wenzel Golkowsky (p. 79), Susannah Hel- 
ena Golkowsky (p. 80), Rosina Kisselova (p. 80), 
Johann Czerny (p. 80), Rosina Stuschike (p. 81), 
Franz Herodicz (p. 81), Anna Kreitsche, maiden 
name Boschena (p. 81), Dorothea Pospischill (p. 
81), Carl Urban (p. 81), Matthew Pochobratsky 
(p. 82), John Kaplan (p. 82), Catherine Weiprach- 
titzke (p. 82), Eva Brachatshin (p. 82), Wenzel 
Slatnik (p. 83), Anna Kissela (p. 83), Wenzel Bonar 
(p. 83), Matthew Prokopek (p. 83), John Prokopek 
(p. 83), Elisabeth Keetschar, married Kowarsch 
(p. 83), Magdalena Fihol (p. 83), Marie Kubasek 
(p. 83), Andreas Broksch (p. 83), Martin Powalka 
(p- 83), Judith Shukal (p. 84), Jacob Swihola (p. 84), 
Joh. Jacob Swihola, Jr. (p. 84), Andreas Budeman- 
sky (p. 84), John Gilek (p. 84), John Matema (p. 
84), Wenzel Oudrzik (p. 84), George Pakosta (p. 
84), Anna Swoboda (p. 84), Carl Matschek (p. 84), 



Thomas Juren (p. 85), Augustin Witthofsky (p. 85), 
John Holeschofsky (p. 85). 

Some of the emigrants we find later among set- 
tlers in Pennsylvania. In Egle's catalogue we meet 
with Michael Miksch (p. 167), Catherine Butman- 
sky (p. 168), Andrew Broksch (p. 170), Thomas 
Stach (p. 209), Andrew Anton Lawatsch (p. 210), 
George Wenceslaus Golkowsky (p. 302), Joseph 
Bullitschek (p. 303), Ulrick Pitcha, Anna Maria 
Masin, etc.^ In another register we note these Cech 
surnames: Martin Blisky, John Ludwig Buda, 
Mathias Hora, Gabriel Gascha, Johann Seirut- 

Without doubt a descendant of a Cech family 
which settled in Pennsylvania in the eighteenth 
century was John W. Kittera, a member of Con- 
gress from 1 791 to 1 801. At the completion of his 
congressional terms he was appointed United States 
District Attorney for the Eastern District of Penn- 
sylvania and removed to Philadelphia, where he 
died. He was the son of Thomas Kittera of East 
Earl Township, Lancaster County. 

The first attempt at missions by Moravians un- 
der British auspices was undertaken in Georgia. 
Toeltschig was one of nine missionaries sent to 
Georgia in 1734. Toeltschig died in Dublin in April, 

^ William Henry Egle, editor: Notes and Queries: Historical, Bio- 
graphical and Genealogical. Relating chiefly to interior Pennyslvania. 
Fourth series, v. i. Also, Names of Foreigners who took the Oath of Al- 
legiance to the Province and State of Pennsylvania 1727-75. With 
the foreign arrivals, 1786-1808. Harrisburg, Pa., 1892. 



1764.^ The second colony was founded in Pennsyl- 
vania, where the Moravians purchased a tract of 
five hundred acres in Bucks County in the spring of 
1 741, and a second tract of five thousand acres at 
Nazareth. To Pennsylvania now set in a steady in- 
flow of Moravians and it is reckoned that between 
1 74 1 and 1762 upwards of seven hundred men and 
women, most of them members of congregations on 
the Continent and in Great Britain, crossed the 
seas and settled in Pennsylvania.^ 

^ Abraham Reincke: A Register of Members of the Moravian 
Church between lyzy and, 1754. 

* W. C. Reichel : A Register of the Members of the Moravian Church. 
With historical annotations; also, I. Daniel Rupp: A Collection of 
upwards of 30,000 Names of German, Swiss, Dutch, French and other 
Immigrants in Pennsylvania, from 1727-76. 



PRIOR to 1840 no one in Bohemia thought of 
emigrating, says a contemporary. In the first 
place, Bohemia experienced a wave of prosperity 
after the Napoleonic wars. Everything was cheap 
and there was plenty of work. In 1840, however, 
blighting droughts visited the country ^ and there 
was a failure of the potato crop. Suffering actual 
want, the Cech people at that time began to think 
of migrating to America. The first to leave Kutn4 
Hora, as the gubernatorial passport of 1845 proves, 
was innkeeper Pospi§il, the second, cabinet-maker 
Fiirst. The passport cost fifty florins in silver. With- 
out it not even a mouse could slip across the border 
which was carefully patrolled by the grenzjagers. 
One incurred the risk of being shot if one attempted 
to cross without a passport. 

In 1847, thirty-nine men of the Thirty-fifth Pil- 
sen Regiment (Khevenhuller) escaped to America 
from the Mainz fortress, Tiima, the orderly of 
General Uhlmann, of the artillery,'^ among them. 
Following Tuma, these soldiers deserted: Stropek, 
Skdla, Zajicek, Lexa, Cukr, Osoba, In 1849 the 

* The Pokrok Zdpadu. 1888. Reminiscences of Anton Koci4n 
(Kotzian) of BFeclava. 

* In New York Tuma bore the by-name of Cech Columbus, a 
jocular allusion to his early landing. 



military accountant Touzimsky ran away to 
America, having embezzled the regimental funds. 
The latter's successful flight gave courage to other 
soldiers. "I planned with twenty-one other men 
to get away, too," relates Anton Kocian, "inas- 
much as Tuma had written us that he owned in 
New York a Cech Casino and that the Cechs in 
that city had organized a club. At times as many as 
700 emigrants, chiefly from the Slane, Beroun and 
Koufim district (Cech — Kraj, German — Kreis) 
concentrated at Mainz. ^ There they waited for the 
ship to sail and if not accommodated in taverns, they 
were given shelter in the military barracks. I am 
certain some of the oldest deserters will recall the 
circumstances well. Stropek, Zajicek, Touzimsky, 
my school mates, were from Kutnd Hora. Tuma, 
Lexa, Skala and Cukr belonged by domicil to 
Kourim and Tabor. Where these men settled I do 
not know. I lost sight of the nineteen save one who, 
under the assumed name of Senna (Senner) worked 
in a brickyard in Brooklyn. Tuma was the first cor- 
respondent from America to newspapers in Bo- 
hemia. He contributed to Charles Havlicek's paper. 
My brother-in-law wrote me when I served in the 
army, that an ex-soldier, Tuma by name, from time 
to time wrote for the papers." "^ 

^ Emigrants traveled from Bohemia via Bavaria to Mainz through 
the traveling agency of Karl Rabe who had an emigration bureau in 

^ If it is true, as Kocian says, that Tflma contributed to Prague 
papers, his letters were not published under his signature, for an 




, Until 1884 the authorities kept a record of emi- 
gration in the Emigration Tabellen. These tables 
registered annually persons who left the empire and 
"emigrated to foreign lands with the intention of 
not returning." They noted the age, sex, and prop- 
erty interests of the emigrant. After 1867 the au- 
thorities began to lose control of the movement, and 
in 1884 the central bureau of statistics in Vienna 
abandoned this tabulation as unsatisfactory. In- 
stead it began to publish in the Statistische Monat- 
schrift data bearing on the transoceanic emigration 
only, based on figures collected by Austrian consuls 
at the principal seaports of the world. ^ 

In the sixties of the last century the Frenchman 
Alfred Legoyt ^ could say truthfully that the people 
of Austria showed no inclination to emigrate. With 
apparent satisfaction he noted that there were 
several factors which militated against emigration 
on a larger scale. Among other considerations there 
were the great distances to seaports, strict, almost 
prohibitive regulations by the state, prosperity 
among the small farmers, large areas of undevel- 
oped land awaiting skilled cultivators, and so forth. 
Yet, before long, economists were amazed to wit- 
examination of the files of HavlICek's journals has failed to bring 
out Tuma's name. 

* Dr. J. Buzek: Das Auswanderungs-problem und die Regelung 
des Auswanderungswesens in Oesterreich, v. x, pp. 441, 553. Zeil- 
schrift fiir Volkswirtschaft, Socialpoliiik und Verwallung. Wien und 
Leipzig, 1 901. 

* Alfred Legoyt (1815-85): L' Emigration EuropSenne. Paris, 



ness an almost revolutionary change in this re- 

From Bohemia there were two distinct kinds of 
emigration: the political one which had its origin 
in the revolutionary disturbances of 1848; the 
other emigration, due to economic causes. 

The wonderful stories of the discovery of gold 
in California excited the Cechs no less than they 
agitated other Europeans. Newspapers published 
highly colored articles about the rich California 
gold fields, while emigration agents, plying their 
trade surreptitiously, magnified what was already 
exaggerated by the press. Warning by the authori- 
ties against emigration had little or no effect; in 
a like manner admonitions by the church proved 
futile. It is probably true that the gold craze af- 
fected Bohemia more generally than it agitated 
other Austrian states. In 1853, 131 1 people emi- 
grated from Plzen district, 1009 from Budejovice 
district. The year following witnessed the depar- 
ture from the first-named district of 1946, from 
the second 1386, and from Pardubice district 1068. 
In 1855, T^bor district lost by emigration 649, 
Chrudim 499, Eger (Cheb) and Plzen 426 each. 
A falling-off occurred in 1859, when only 842 left 
Bohemia. Non-official statisticians estimate, how- 
ever, that the figures here given are by far too 
low and that we should strike the mark by doub- 
ling them. All told, the number of emigrants from 
the empire to the United States during the Cali- 



fornia gold fever excitement amounted to about 

It will be noticed in the following table that from 
the outset Bohemia and Moravia sent out an al- 
most even ratio of males and females. Tabulated 
according to age. a majority of the emigrants were 
between seventeen and forty, which years, experi- 
ence has demonstrated, represent a period of the 
highest physical productivity. In the adult male 
wage-earner it is a time when ambition impels him 
to most intensive effort and action. 

Emigration according to Sex and Age between 1850-60 * 




Up to 
7 years 





Past 50 




























































> Mittheilungen aus dem Gebiete der Statistik, v. XVii, part 3. p. 89. Herausgegeben 
von der K. K. Central = Commission. Wien, 1870. 
































































1 109 










































1 102 












































































































During the eight years between i860 and 1868 
the emigration from Bohemia, Moravia, and Sile- 
sia was, respectively: 
























The total number of emigrants from Austria be- 
tween 1850-68 was 57,726; of this no less than 
43,645 is Bohemia's share. The backward districts 
of the southern part of the country furnished by far 
the heaviest quota. 

Emigration to Russia from Bohemia began to 
assume at this time marked proportions. Thousands 
were lured thither by the prospect of high wages — 
high, compared to wages paid in Austria — and by 
land grants offered to settlers by the Russian Gov- 
ernment. After the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, 
the flow of surplus population toward America 
again increased; in fact, the Austro-Prussian War, 
synchronous as it was with the end of the Civil 
War, marked an epoch in emigration which from 
that year on mounted steadily and rapidly. 

After 1880 the character of the emigration is seen 
to change noticeably. The Cechs and Germans who 



had been supplying the bulk of the arrivals from 
Austria, gradually begin to give room to a new 
ethnic element, the Hungarians. 

Later the Jugo-Slavs follow the Hungarians and 
in the overshadowing figures that result, the Cech 
portion becomes, by comparison, negligible. 

Notwithstanding strict police regulations, adver- 
tisements, though veiled, appear here and there 
telling of the great opportunities in America, giv- 
ing instructions how to travel and other advice. Die 
Constitutionelle Allgemeine Zeitung von Bohmen (Sep- 
tember 22, 1848) contains the advertisement of the 
firm of Knorr & Janssen, of Hamburg. The repre- 
sentative of the firm in Bohemia is Ed. Zenk of 

Another advertisement is that of Postschiff Ver- 
bindung London-New York. Passagiere und Aus- 
wanderer aus oest. Staate. The agent is G. H. 

The same newspaper recommends to readers in 
its issue of April 15, 1849, to purchase a book on 
America, bearing the title, Auf, nach Amerika, by 
Fr. Jager. 

An announcement, printed May 31, 1849, as- 
sures the public that despite the Danish War, emi- 
gration to America via Bremen proceeds uninter- 

The Prazsky Vecerni List lends space (in 1849) 
to the following advertisements: 

"May 22. Travelers to America are conveyed by 



vessels on the 15th of every month by S. H. P. 
Schroder in Bremen. Agent C. Poppe, Prague, 
Konsky Trh, No. 833." 

"June 30. Announcement to Travelers to Amer- 
ica. The firm of Liidering & Co., in Bremen, ships 
emigrants on the ist and 15th of every month by 
fast going vessels. Agent, F. A. Dattelzweig, Kla- 
tovy (Klattau)." 

The Prazske Noviny of September 16, 1847, 
edited by Karel Havlicek, admonishes the readers 
not to emigrate. The article is obviously a reprint 
from the German. If the Cechs, the writer argues, 
who contemplate going to America, work as hard 
at home as Americans are known to toil, they will 
be surprised to find America at their own threshold. 
The Politicke wesnicke nowiny z Cech of September 
II, 1849, pleads with the readers that love of the 
fatherland, if nothing else, should deter Cechs 
from emigrating. Who but adventurers dare the 
trip to America, anyway? Yet it is futile to try to 
divert the thoughts of the poor and the resolute 
from America. 

" Reports continue to arrive from California con- 
cerning the large quantities of gold unearthed 
there," says the Noviny Lipy Slovanske of February 
14, 1849. "Nuggets of gold ore weighing as much 
as a pound, in some cases two, have been found. 
There are instances on record of emigrants making 
in gold digging and in trading with the Indians as 
much as $30,000. The average earnings of a person 



per day amount to $ioo. Fever is prevalent among 
the inhabitants but it is not fatal. Clothing, food 
and domestic labor are very high; shirts sell at $io 
each, beef from $i to $2 a pound, laundering a 
dozen shirts costs $6. A merchant's clerk commands 
^3,000 a year." 

Writing from New York to the Prague Ndrodni 
Noviny, April 3, 1849, J. C^ harps on the same 
favorite theme, California and its fabulous riches. 

Emigrants traveled to the United States by the 
four ports of Hamburg, Havre, Antwerp and Bre- 
men. As late as 1849 not a mile of railroad existed 
in Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, 
or Texas.^ Up to 1850-55 but a small percentage of 
emigrants went west by railroad. They chose their 
homes in lake or river cities which had been bene- 
fited by canal and railroad construction. Buffalo, on 
Lake Erie, was of small importance until 1825 
when by the opening of the Erie Canal, it became 
the gateway from the great valley to the Atlantic 
States. Cleveland in the same way benefited by the 
opening of the Erie Canal, as did Detroit, the oldest 
of the Western cities. Steamboats plied regularly 
between Milwaukee and Buffalo in the season of 
lake navigation. As a general rule the French and 
English clung to the seacoast, while the German, 
Scandinavian, and Cech pushed into agricultural 

* " J. C" is conceivably Joseph Cilinsk^, a jeweler from Prague, 
and an early resident of New York. 
' McMaster's History of the United States, v. vili, p. 88. 


Vopyrtg/it by Harris Sf Ewing, Washington, O.C. 

Charles Pergler (second from left) and part of his Staff 


States. Before an all-rail connection had been es- 
tablished between New York and Chicago, Buffalo 
was a kind of Mecca, where immigrants, journeying 
westward, assembled. The city presented a sight 
not to be seen elsewhere on this continent. Endless 
caravans of coaches, of lumbering moving vans, of 
country wagons, the latter loaded with household 
furniture, agricultural implements, boxes, trunks, 
moved through the principal thoroughfares. Immi- 
grants, with packs and baskets strapped to their 
backs, lounged on the sidewalks or crowded in 
front of lodging-houses. In 1845, says a chronicler, 
96,000 Europeans passed through the city. Boats 
which maintained communication with points west 
of Buffalo seemed to do no other business, except 
the transport of immigrants and their luggage. 
The decks of these boats were provided with stalls 
for domestic animals. In appearance, they sug- 
gested nothing so much as Noah's Ark. Their decks 
were loaded with passengers, horses, horned cattle, 
Vehicles, and household belongings. Ordinarily, 
travelers journeyed from New York to Albany by 
water, from Albany to Buffalo by rail, from Buffalo 
to Detroit by a lake boat. From the latter-named 
city to Chicago, again by boat, the journey lasted 
from five to six days. The Missouri Republican of 
July 20, 1849, advertises the trip from St. Louis to 
LaSalle, a distance of 281 miles for $5. From La- 
Salle to Chicago, 100 miles, $4. From Chicago to 
Buffalo via Buffalo and Detroit, from $5 to $S, 



From Buffalo to Albany by rail, $9.75. From Al- 
bany to New York by boat, 50 cents. Owing to 
the popular clamor that transportation compan- 
ies overcharged immigrants, a committee was ap- 
pointed in New York to investigate the alleged 
charges of extortion. It was claimed that immi- 
grants were treated brutally by agents and run- 
ners, particularly those who were unable to speak 
English. Buffalo never appealed to Cechs. Borecky^ 
mentions by name about ten families who lived 
there in the mid-fifties. Even these few moved to 
other parts, eventually, save the Myskas or Misch- 
kas, as the name came to be spelled later. ^ 

In the following seacoast, river, and lake cities the 
nuclei of settlements began forming in or after the 
fifties: New York, Baltimore, New Orleans, Buf- 
falo, St. Louis, Dubuque, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, 
Detroit, Cleveland, Chicago, Racine, Manitowoc, 
and Kewaunee. Always small, the settlements in 
New Orleans, Buffalo, and Dubuque soon disap- 
peared, owing partly to removal, partly to assimi- 

The first farming communities sprang up in Wis- 
consin. This State possessed advantages over others 
which strongly appealed to the Central European. 
The climate, though severe with long winters, was 
salubrious and singularly free from those frequent 
and unhealthy changes which prevail farther south. 

1 John Borecky: Chapters on the History of Cech-Moravians in 
America, p. 9. 



The soil was adaptable to the raising of maize, rye, 
wheat, oats, and vegetables, all products with 
which the Cech husbandman was familiar. More- 
over, there was no fear of the humiliating competi- 
tion with negro labor. Wisconsin's attractions were 
widely advertised in German and Austrian news- 
papers. In the aggregate, it had the largest propor- 
tion of foreign citizens. Out of a population of 
305*391 in 1850, there were 106,691, or more than 
one out of three, born abroad. Of that number 
nearly 40,000 were Germans. "The state [Wiscon- 
sin] commended itself to settlers in other ways. 
Taxes were low; one could become a citizen within 
one year. Good land could be bought at $1.25 an 
acre and the ground of poorer quality for less price 
than that. The state maintained in New York City 
a salaried official, so called Immigration Commis- 
sioner, whose duty it was to seek to divert the 
flow of newcomers thither. This commissioner ad- 
vertised extensively in the foreign language press, 
mainly German, sending besides, generous quanti- 
ties of printed matter to points in Germany, Aus- 
tria, Switzerland." ^ 

One of the pamphlets read : " Come ! In Wisconsin 
all men are free and equal before the law. . . . Reli- 
gious freedom is absolute and there is not the slight- 
est connection between church and state. ... In 
Wisconsin no religious qualification is necessary for 

* Albert B. Faust: The German Element in the United States, v. i, 
p. 477. 



office or to constitute a voter; all that is required is 
for the man to be 21 years old and to have lived in 
the state one year." ^ 

Wisconsin, for a long time, stood at the front of 
Cech effort in the United States. The weekly Slavie 
made familiar in every household the names of 
Milwaukee, Racine, Caledonia, Manitowoc, and 
Kewaunee. The Germans called Milwaukee the 
German Athens, the Cechs baptized Racine, where 
stood the cradle of the Slowan Amerikdnsky and 
later Slavie, the Cech Bethlehem. 

At one time or another, Wisconsin was the home 
of Vojta Ndprstek, John Herman, Frank Korfzek, 
J. B. Letovsky, Vdclav Simonek, Vojta Masek, 
Charles Jon4s, Ladimfr Kldcel, Franta Mrd£ek, 
John Borecky, John Karel. Here were projected 
and came into existence, at the promptings of the 
Slavie the first Cech language schools; here, too, 
were organized the Slovanskd Lipa chain of socie- 
ties. When the newer States, Nebraska and Kansas, 
had been thrown open to settlers, it was the hardy 
Wisconsin pioneer who was ready to advise his less 
experienced countrymen in those States. 

"The Cech community of Milwaukee is one of 
the oldest in America ; it is older than either the one 
in Chicago or Cleveland, for the Cechs were per- 
manently settled in Milwaukee the first half of the 

* John G. Gregory: Foreign Immigration to Wisconsin. Address 
delivered before the Wisconsin State Historical Convention at Mil- 
waukee, October II, 19 II. 





V Kjicliit* «liif rijiio- Uifti t 



nineteenth century. ... In 1848 Vojta Ndprstek 
came. It was he, who here had sown the seed of na- 
tional Hfe; he was the founder of the local Cech li- 
brary; from him came the incentive to publish a 
Cech newspaper. . . . Synchronously with him ar- 
rived in Milwaukee Hans Balatka of Moravia. . . .** 
" In no other state of northern America are so many 
Cechs settled as in Wisconsin. Admittedly, the first 
stopping point of our countrymen was Milwaukee, 
where now live between two and three hundred 
families; by far the largest numbers are found in 
the city and county of Manitowoc. . . ." "Many 
large Cech settlements may be found especially in 
the counties of Manitowoc, Kewaunee, Oconto, La 
Crosse, Adams, and Marathon."^ 

Vojta Masek (Mashek, 1 839-1903), a well-to-do 
merchant, tells in his reminiscences * that when he 

1 F. K.: "The Cradle of Bohemian National Life in Milwaukee," 
The Kvety Americke, December 22, 1886. — "The Bohemian Opera 
House in Manitowoc," The KvHy Americke, April 13, 1887. — 
Vaclav Ci2ek: "Reminiscences of the Old Settlers." The Almanac 
Amerikdn, 1897. —J. J. Vlach: (e) "Our Bohemian Population." 
Proceedings of the State Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin. Madison, 1902. — 
Nan Mashek. (e) "Bohemian Farmers in Wisconsin," Charities, 
New York, December 3, 1904. — Anton NovAk: "Brief Account of 
the Bohemian Community in Milwaukee, in Memorial published 
on the occasion of the fourteenth convention of the C.S.P.S., held 
in Milwaukee, 1909. 

* The Kvety Americke, January 5, 1887, biography and portrait; 
the Almanac Amerikdn, 1891; the Almanac Amerikdn, 1901, me- 
moirs and portrait. A lifelong friend of Jon65 and his schoolmate 
from Prague, Ma§ek, gave up journalism (Jon45 took over the 
Slavie from him) because "it did not offer enough opportunity to an 
ambitious man." 



came to Racine in 1861 the farmers, unable to make 
a living out of the few acres of soil which they had 
under cultivation, sought employment in the lum- 
ber industry, laboring in the saw mills in towns, 
cutting and rolling logs in camps. Many of them 
worked as shingle cutters. Often the only domestic 
animal owned by the farmer was a cow or a calf. All 
around the country was thickly wooded; beautiful 
maples, cherry trees and birches were cut and 
stumps burned to clear the land for cultivation. 
Unfortunately, beauty was the only asset of these 
trees. Market value they had none. Stumps were 
left in the ground until they rotted or were burned; 
in the patches, which by the way, widened year by 
year, the farmer planted his potatoes and his corn. 
Of the seacoast cities New York was the only one 
to attract Cechs in greater numbers. For a good 
many years Niew York served merely as a jumping- 
off place, a point of distribution, from which immi- 
grants scattered to inland places. Although tens of 
thousands had passed through its gates on their 
journey westward, Joseph Pastor, in a communica- 
tion to the Slavie, estimated in 1867 their strength 
there at 1500. The New Yorkers hired rooms in the 
poorest quarter of the city. The furniture consisted 
of only the necessary pieces; chairs, tables and 
beds. Cases were by no means uncommon where 
two related families shared the same diminutive 
apartment. On the lower east side, in Essex, Divi- 
sion, Houston, Delancy, and Rivington Streets, 



which is the habitat of the poor from southeastern 
Europe, still may be seen many of the old-time ram- 
shackle structures in which they lived. Worse yet 
was the back-yard tenement; shut off from light 
and air, the tenant and his children enjoyed within 
them about as much comfort as an inmate of a 

No rural community in New York State of any 
consequence took root except one. That is situ- 
ated at Bohemia, on Long Island, about fifty miles 
from New York City. John Vivra, John Koula, 
and John Kratochvil are the reputed founders of 
it in 1855. A local historian says that eleven fam- 
ilies settled in Bohemia Village in iSsq.'^ 

St. Louis bid fair at one time to become a Cech 
metropolis. There the first Catholic church was 
erected in 1854; there the C.S.P.S. benevolent 
brotherhood was organized in 1854. And had not 
Racine deprived it of the honor by a close margin of 

* Jacob Riis: (e) How the Other Half Lives (studies among the 
tenements of New York), pp. 136-47. New York, 1891. — Jane E. 
Robbins : (e) " The Bohemian Women in New York and their Work as 
Cigarmakers," Charities, New York, December 3, 1904. — Memorial 
issued on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the exist- 
ence of the New York Supreme Lodge, C.S.P.S., and of lodges subor- 
dinated thereto. 148 pp. January 16, 1904. — John V. Capek: The 
History of the Cech Community in New York and the Ndrodni Jednota 
(Society of National Union) of American t^echs. 48 pp. New York, 
1904. — The Almanac of the Cech-Slavic People in New York, v. i. 
164 pp. New York, 1904. — J. E. S. Vojan: "The Cech Quarter of 
New York," pp. 176-84, in Greater New York, 1908. 

* Joseph F. Thuma: "History of Bohemia Village," The Almanac 
Amerikdn, 1896. "Reminiscences of John Koula," The Almanac 
Amerikdn, 1903. 



twenty days, St. Louis might have been the birth- 
place of the Cech press in America. 

St. Louis attracted European settlers because it 
was the terminus of boats sailing up the Mississippi 
from New Orleans. Passenger and freight carrying 
lines navigating the Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, 
and Ohio Rivers made regular stops there. Settlers 
bound for points west of the Mississippi River pre- 
ferred St. Louis to Chicago. It had four times as 
many inhabitants as Chicago; in 1845 two German 
dailies were published there. When in 1853 Chicago 
was connected with the east by rail and travelers 
found it more convenient and cheaper to reach the 
northwest by way of New York and Chicago rather 
than enter it via New Orleans and the Missis- 
sippi River, the claim of St. Louis to the title of 
Cech metropolis was irretrievably lost. Chicago 
ultimately wrested the scepter from its old rival. ^ 

In Cleveland the Cechs began concentrating in 
larger numbers about the same time, that is, after 
1852.^ The story is told that sixteen families who 

^ The Almanac Amerikdn, 1901. Vaclav Jirouch believes that no 
more than thirty Cech families lived in St. Louis in 1852. The growth 
of the St. Louis center suffered a setback during the Civil War; the 
tide of immigration turned, Jirouch thinks, to Cleveland, Chicago 
and to eastern cities generally. — The Memorial of the Fiftieth Jubi- 
lee of CS.P.S. 1854-1904, published on the occasion of the Thir- 
teenth Convention of the CS.P.S. Brotherhood, August i, 1904, at 
St. Louis. 

' The Cech Community of Cleveland and the Social Life thereof. 
192 pp. Published the year of the Ethnographic Exhibition in 
Prague, 1895. Substantially the same story by Hugo Chotek, though 
concise, is reprinted in the Almanac Amerikdn, 1895, pp. 201-11. 



arrived that year found temporary shelter in the 
home of a kind-hearted Bohemian Jew by the name 
of Levy. The fact should be noted that the Israelites 
in many instances preceded others from Bohemia. 

"When we reached Cleveland in 1853," says 
Mrs. Nov^k, "Indian tents were pitched beyond 
Newburgh. We settled in Brooklyn (suburb of 
Cleveland), where we found many of our country- 
men. I recall the following names of old settlers: 
F. Zika, V. Benda, J. Kaiser, old man Kocian, Bldha, 
Zeman, Hladik, Stein, Bauer, Ptdcek, Marek, etc." ^ 

Land prices in Cleveland, according to Novdk, 
who came in 1853, were ridiculously low. All the pio- 
neers could have become rich had they been fore- 
sighted. Any kind of work was welcome in the 
start, as long as it assured existence to the immi- 

A private census taken of the Cleveland com- 
munity in 1869 2 lists 696 families, numbering a 
total of 3252 persons. Of these 1749 were men, 1503 
women. The occupations of the men, the census 
gives as follows: 346 laborers, 76 masons, ^2 joiners, 
56 tailors, 44 shoemakers, 39 coopers, 25 lock- 
smiths and machinists, 13 musicians, 11 smelters, 

More trustworthy data on the Cleveland community than Chotek's 
story are contained in the narratives of Francis S;^kora (arrived in 
1853), Joseph Kri2 (1853), Martin KrejCi (1854), Francis Sprost^ 
(1866), Francis Payer (1868), Joseph V. Sykora (1863), in the k\- 
ma.nac Amerikdn, 1895. — Magdalena Ku2era: (e) "The Slavic Races 
in Cleveland," Charities, January, 1905. 

^ The Cech Community of Cleveland, etc., p. 17. 

' The Slavic, February 17, 1869. 



12 butchers, 9 saddlers, 9 weavers, 8 stone cutters, 
7 wheelwrights, 6 furriers, 6 tinsmiths, 5 bakers, 5 
tanners, 5 dyers, 4 cutlers, 2 builders, 2 bookbind- 
ers, I printer, i watchmaker, i sanitary inspector, 
I policeman, i brewer, i lithographer, i priest, 22 
saloonkeepers. The census gatherer (Payer? Er- 
hart?) records 396 owners of cottages. 

Into Chicago, the first groups began filtering in 
1852-53. The Chicago pioneers squatted on the 
outskirts of the city, on land that is now a part of 
Lincoln Park. There they lived until 1855 in shacks 
when the owner of the land drove the squatters oflF. 
The men earned their living by loading and un- 
loading lumber on the river front. The women and 
children did the customary chores around the 
house. On market days, the women went to market 
to buy groceries and to the abattoirs for cheap 
meats (haslet, tripe, kidneys, brains, etc.). Often 
the purchases were made on the cooperative plan.^ 

^ F. B. Zdrflbek: "History of Chicago and of its Cech Residents, 
pp. 139-71 — in the Almanac, Amerikdn, 1884. — Charles Jon&§: (e) 
"The Bohemians in Chicago" Chicago Sunday Times, January 24, 
1892. — St. J. Halik and J. R. : " Hall of the T. J. Sokol in Chicago," 
the Kvity Americke, March i6, 1887. — The Directory of American 
(^echs, published to commemorate the Cech Slavic Ethnographic Ex- 
hibition in Prague, in 1895. 320 pp. — Josephine H. Zeman: (e) The 
Bohemian People in Chicago. The Hull House Papers, pp. 115-28. 
1895. — Dr. John Habenicht: Reminiscences of a Cech Physician. A 
contribution to the history of Cech Americans. 89 pp. Chicago, 1897. 
— Dr. John Habenicht and Anton Pregler: Memorial of old Cech 
Settlers of Chicago, published in commemoration of the second anni- 
versary of the society, held August 20, 1899. 51 pp. — Paul Albieri: 
"The Cech Element in Chicago," pp. 5-40, in The Directory of Bo- 
hemian Merchants, Tradesmen andSocieties. Chicago, 1900. — Frank 


o S 

X g 
















































Minnesota boasted, in 1850, of 6077 white in- 
habitants. Settlers, chiefly of Scandinavian an- 
cestry, poured in so fast that ten years later 
the population had already mounted to 172,023. 
Though the Germans constituted a goodly per- 
centage, yet their numbers in Minnesota never 
even approximated the grand total of Germandom 
in Wisconsin and it was far behind the figure made 
up by the combined populations of Swedes and 
Norwegians. In 1900 the census reported 211,769 
settlers of Swedish and 224,892 of Norwegian an- 
cestry. Of the Germanic race the census enumerator 
found in the State that year 289,822 people. New 
Prague greeted the first Cechs in 1856. "The fine 
stretch of land comprising LeSueur, Rice and Scott 
counties, peopled chiefly by our Cech countrymen 
and which we may truly call Little Bohemia was, 
fifty years ago, the stamping ground of droves of 
deer, roebuck and other beasts of the field." ^ 

B. Zdriibek: The History of the Cech National Cemetery in Chicago, 
from 1877, the year of its foundation, to the twenty-fifth year of its 
existence in 1902. 144 pp. Chicago, 1902. — Memorial of Ludvik's 
Theatrical Troupe. PubUshed to commemorate the tenth anniversary 
of a permanent Cech playhouse in Chicago. 52 pp. Chicago, 1893- 
1903- — Alice G. Masaryk: (e) "The Bohemians in Chicago," Chari- 
ties, December 3, 1904. — The History of Ten Years Duration of the 
Society of Old Cech Settlers of Chicago. 86 pp. Chicago, 1908. — J. 
E. S. Vojan: '"Cech Chicago, its Beginnings and Present Develop- 
ment," pp. 29-68, in Directory and Almanac of the tech Population 
of Chicago. 

* Rev. John Rynda: Guide to the Cech Catholic Congregations in 
the Archdiocese of St. Paul. 233 pp. Published by the League of 
Cech priests of that diocese. 1910. 



John Ka§par, who emigrated as a lad of fourteen, 
tells how the Ka§par, Maly, and Navrdtil fami- 
lies journeyed from Racine (Wisconsin) to McLeod 
County in Minnesota. Each family provided itself 
for the long trek with an ox-team and a prairie 
schooner, in which were piled featherbeds, kitchen 
utensils, clothing, provisions. The caravan started 
from Racine on April i, reaching its objective 
in McLeod County after untold hardships, on 
July 6.1 

Iowa received the Cechs somewhat later than 
Wisconsin. A local annalist counted 139 Cechs in 
Cedar Rapids in 1856.^ Vdclav Drbohlav is known 
to have lived in Cedar Rapids in 1850; Vit Fibikar 
and Vdclav Rigl settled there either in 185 1 or 1852. 
The arrivals of 1854 were John Bdrta Letovsky, 
Anton Sulek, F. Kubias, Joseph Various (Wallace), 
John Witousek, Joseph WoytiSek, John Cemin, 
Joseph and F. Rencin, Jacob Poldk.^ 

"The first permanent settlement was made in the 
northern part of Johnson County, in Jefferson 
township and College township in Linn County. 
The majority of the older settlers in this section 

* The Almanac Amerikdn, 1891. 

' Joseph E. Marcombe: (e) The History of Linn County. 

' Memorial of the C^ech American Day during the Golden Jubilee of 
Cedar Rapids, June 14, 1906, p. 42. — L. J. P. (alda): "Hall of the 
Reading Club in Cedar Rapids," the Kvety Americke, February i6, 
1887. — S^rka B. Hrbkova: (e) "Bohemians have done much for 
Cedar Rapids," The Cedar Rapids Republican, June 10, 1906. — J. 
R. JiJJnsk^: (e) Bohemians in Linn County. Linn County Atlas. 
Davenport, 1907. 



came in the years 1854 to 1856, but stragglers fol- 
lowed for many years later." ^ 

Members of the Pecinovsky family were pioneers 
in Dubuque and Davenport.^ The settling of Spill- 
ville and vicinity took place later when railroads 
made traveling more convenient. M. B. Vosoba, 
Vaclav Jilek and Anton Simerda bought land in 
Jones County in 1855.^ 

Home-builders began arriving in Nebraska in 
noticeable numbers after 1863, following the pas- 
sage of the Homestead Law. Saline County, and 
especially the stretch of land lying between the 
towns of Crete and Wilber, welcomed the vanguard 
of the strangers, all or nearly all of whom had come 
from Wisconsin. Some, it is said, were discontented 
with the climate, others with the soil of Wisconsin.* 
A. L. Schlesinger ^ (1806-93), who died in Denver at 
a ripe old age, was the first-known settler there. 
Schlesinger had been a deputy to the Bohemian 
Diet. Dissatisfied with political conditions he emi- 
grated in 1856. After various unsuccessful attempts 
to gain a footing elsewhere, he landed in Washington 
County, Nebraska, in 1857. For a number of years 

* B. Simek: (e) The Bohemians in Johnson County. (la.) p. i. 
' The Almanac Amerikdn, 1891, » Ibid., 1896. 

* Rev. John Stephen Bro2: History of the St. Vaclav Bohemian 
Catholic Congregation in Dodge. 73 pp. — Jubilee edition of Osvita 
Americkd, June 15, 1904. — (e) History of the Bohemians in Ne- 
braska. Published by the Nebraska State Historical Society, 1914. — 
Otto KotouC: (e) "The Bohemian Settlement at Humboldt," in His- 
tory of Richardson County. 

' The Kvety Americke, January 6, 1886. Biography and portrait. 



Schlesinger made his living as a teamster, hauling 
food-stuffs and goods over the trackless plains 
between Omaha and Denver. 

Another old settler was Edward Rosewater 
(originally Rosenwasser) , the founder of the Omaha 
Bee and of the Pokrok Zdpadu. Indisputably, Rose- 
water was the most distinguished Bohemian Jew in 
the State. 

John Herman who, like most Nebraskans, had 
first tried Wisconsin, is said to have brought with 
him more cash money to America than any other 
pioneer; according to John Rosicky, a Nebraska 
newspaper editor, some 80,000 florins. Like Schlesin- 
ger, Herman had taken an active part in the national 
movement in Bohemia ; like Schlesinger, he too was 
elected to the Diet. Emanuel Arnold and Charles 
Havlicek, patriots and revivalists, were his per- 
sonal friends. Both, when danger threatened, found 
succor under Herman's hospitable roof. Police ter- 
rorism forced him to sell his property and emigrate 
in 1856. Due to unfortunate investments first in 
St. Francis, then in Manitowoc in Wisconsin, Her- 
man lost his fortune and settled as a poor man in 
Saline County.^ 

Why the Cechs from Moravia have shown pref- 

^ The Kvety Americke, March 30, 1887. — Biography and por- 
trait, Jubilee edition of the Osveta Americkd, June 15, 1904. Herman 
was one of the striking figures among the pathfinders. Not without 
reason co-nationals looked up to him as a leader. The author served 
a term in the Nebraska Legislature with Herman's oldest son, 







erence for Texas ^ to the exclusion of other Southern 
States, is explained in another chapter. Dr. Habe- 
nicht, who practiced his profession there, is author- 
ity for the statement that the men who were instru- 
mental in diverting the initial migration to that 
State were Pastors Bergman of Zapudov (Mora- 
via) and Joseph J. Zvolanek of Liptdl and Vsetin 
(Moravia). Letters written by them to members of 
their former congregations induced many Protest- 
ants from Moravia and Bohemia to migrate there. 
Catspring in Austin County, all accounts agree, 
formed the base and concentration point of the 
newcomers. Here they rested, took counsel, and 
bought supplies for the fatiguing journey inland. 
Cech Texas still recalls the old families of Joseph 
Le§ikar, Joseph Siller, John Reymershoffer, Joseph 
Masik. Le§ikar, his biographer records, reached 
Catspring in 1853. An admirer of Havlicek, he did 
his bit in preparing the ground for Cech journal- 
ism in the United States. As agent in Texas of the 
St. Louis Ndrodni Noviny, an outspoken Unionist 
paper, Lesikar was threatened with death by Con- 
federate neighbors unless he gave up the agency of 
this mischief-making publication. One of the Siller 
family studied law and was either the first or one 
of the first Cechs in the United States to devote 
himself to the practice of that profession. The Rey- 
mershoffers passed through Catspring in 1855. 

1 Kenneth D. Miller: (e) "Bohemians in Texas," The Bohemian 
Review, May, 1917. 



Drifting to Galveston, they became prominent in 
business and politics there. John Reymershoffer, a 
son of the pioneer, acted as Austrian Consul. By 
Joseph Masik is claimed the distinction of having 
been the first teacher of his nationality in Texas. 
In company with fifteen other families, MaSik 
landed in Galveston in 1855; thence the travelers 
proceeded by boat to Houston and from Houston 
in prairie schooners to Catspring.^ Substantially the 
same story is reported by Antonin Strupl, a photog- 
rapher, having a studio in Industry.^ 

A prominent figure in Texas is August HaiduSek 
of La Grange, proprietor of the journal Svoboda, 
jurist and banker. Haidusek migrated to Texas as 
a lad before the Civil War. He served in the Con- 
federate army. He thinks he was the first lawyer of 
Cech birth in this country, having been admitted 
to the Texas bar in 1870.^ 

In Kansas, the oldest settlement took root ten 
years after the Civil War. "Meandering southwest, 
we entered Kansas at the corner of Washington and 
Republic Counties going through Republic, Jewell, 
Mitchell, and Lincoln Counties into Wilson town- 
ship, Ellsworth County. . . . The founding of the 
settlement in Palacky Township occurred in June, 
1876. . . . The largest party of Bohemian home- 
seekers came September i, 1876, from Chicago. It 
was one of the organized clubs or colonization socie- 

^ The Almanac Amerikdn, 1887. 
2 Ibid., 1892. ' Ibid., 1901. 



ties (p. 477)." The newcomers spread over the 
counties of Osborne, Mitchell, Lincoln, Russell, 
Ellsworth, Barton. The locust pest, which ruined 
crops in Saline County, was the direct cause of 
many Nebraskans emigrating to Kansas.^ 

Settlements in North and South Dakota were 
founded, not by professional farmers arriving direct 
from Bohemia, as was the case with the farming 
settlements in Wisconsin, Nebraska, and Iowa, but 
by proletarians from large cities, such as Chicago. 
The longing to get away from the grinding misery 
in the shop and factory impelled New Yorkers, 
within the last fifteen or twenty years, to buy 
farms in Connecticut. 

A few wayfarers went to Pennsylvania (Alle- 
gheny) before the Civil War, but the main influx 
did not set in there until the seventies. The charac- 
ter of the Pennsylvania immigration is essentially 
different; not farmers, but millworkers and miners 
migrated there. 

An attempt at farming on the cooperative plan 
was made by a number of families from Chicago at 
Vontay, in Virginia. The community, however, dis- 
solved in 1900, after an existence of less than three 
years. Another settlement centering about Peters- 
burg, near Richmond, has been, on the other hand, 
highly successful. 

The agricultural contingents in Oregon and 

* Francis J. Swehla: (e) "The Bohemians in Central Kansas." 
Collections of the Kansas State Historical Society. Topeka, 1915. 



Washington are not only small, but necessarily 
recent. This is also true of Oklahoma. 

The farmer constructed his dwelling as necessity 
dictated. If he chose his future home in prairie 
States such as Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, where tim- 
ber was scarce, he built a sod house; if his prefer- 
ence was for a woodland country, like Wisconsin, 
he constructed a log cabin. F. J. Sadilek, Register of 
Saline County in Nebraska, narrates how on a dark 
night he once rode with his horse and wagon right 
over a dugout, realizing his blunder only when he 
heard the terrified shrieks of the inmates. The sod 
houses were mere burrows in the ground. Where a 
stream ran through the land, the settler usually dug 
himself into the slope of it.^ 

Farmer Joseph Klima, who settled in 1854 near 
Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, describes how mem- 
bers of his family, harnessing themselves, pulled 
logs to the site chosen for the cabin. Corn bread and 
"coffee," the latter ground from roasted corn, was 
the daily if not the sole food of the family. At times 
even that gave out. By dint of hard labor and self- 
denial, Klima saved enough to buy a team of oxen, 
a wagon, and a plow. After that, the progress of 
breaking up the ground went on more quickly than 
when the sole farming implement was a pick and 
a shovel. 

"I dragged on my back feather beds tied in a 
bundle and some kitchen utensils. My wife carried 
^ F. J. Sadflek: My Reminiscences. 60 pp. Omaha, 1914. 


A. L. Slesinger 

Joseph Kfikava 

Joseph L. Lesikar The Hubd&k Brothers 



cooking-pots and our nine-year daughter had in her 
arms a kitten. Thus equipped we started house- 
keeping in Wisconsin. Upon a closer examination 
of the land we had picked out, we espied on it some 
deserted log cabins, or rather the odds and ends of 
cabins, for everything but the walls was gone. With 
another family we put up in one of the cabins; our 
pallets consisted of a few logs on which we strewed 
brushwood to make them softer." ^ 

"With hoes we raked a patch of ground to plant 
potatoes. Our house was a very simple affair. We 
dug a hole in the ground, lining it with sod. Then 
we threw a top over it, overlaid that with brush- 
wood and thatch and our dwelling was complete." ^ 

To get a true perspective on the old immigrations 
something should be known of the social and politi- 
cal conditions as they existed in Bohemia about 

1848. First of all let it be borne in mind that it was 
the agricultural and domestic labor from the prov- 
inces which supplied the major part of the new- 
comers. Secondly, the peasantry had just emerged 
from a condition resembling semi-slavery, the law 
which abolished forced labor having been passed in 

1849. The elementary school taught little more 
than reading, spelling, and arithmetic. The sover- 
eign desired not educated citizens, but loyal and 
obedient subjects. For centuries the ruling class 
drummed into the head of the peasant its specious 

' The Almanac Amerikdn, 1903. Narrative of Frank Hrbek. 
* Ibid., 1 89 1. Narrative of Joseph Pecinovsk^. 



theories: obey the Church, obey the Government, 
obey the lords. The archbishop claimed a prior Hen 
on the peasant's soul; the emperor held a chattel 
mortgage on his body; the lord usurped the fruits 
of his labor. To the peasant little was left that was 
free and unencumbered. 

Regimented from childhood up to obey and never 
to command ; knowing little or nothing of constitu- 
tional liberty, was it any wonder that, if compared 
to an Englishman, a Swede, or a German, the old- 
time Cech immigrant appeared backward and ser- 
vile and sheepish? The fault, of course, was not his; 
the blame rested on the shoulders of those who for 
centuries held captive his intellect, who sought to 
retain their hold on him by the pernicious teaching 
that dumb obedience and unreasoning faith were 
his only hope of salvation. 

"When I came to St. Louis in May, 1857," says 
John Borecky,^ " I found in that city a strong Cech 
community. They had a Catholic Church, and a 
C.S.P.S. fraternal lodge. Yet the genuine Cech 
spirit somehow or other was lacking. Among .so 
many of my countrymen I found no books except 
prayer books." 

When the author last visited his native land he 
was importuned with all sorts of questions con- 
cerning the Americans. "Tell us how our country- 

* Lecture delivered by John Boreck^ on the occasion of the fiftieth 
anniversary of the Slovansk4 Lipa Society. St. Louiske Listy, Jan- 
uary, 1909. 



men are doing in America. — Do you know my 
cousin, a manufacturer in Chicago? — Have you 
heard of my uncle, Mr. X? He is said to be doing 
excellently. — What do you hear about Mr. N., a 
wealthy notary in Chicago?" Everywhere the 
author met people who had or claimed to have 
uncles, cousins, brothers-in-law, grandfathers, who 
were manufacturers, wholesale merchants, superin- 
tendents, and foremen. In every instance the rela- 
tive held some commanding position; that all were 
wealthy was self-understood, for can one imagine an 
American uncle who is poor? 

A Prussian captain of industry has said that 
America was a land of unlimited possibilities. Yet 
despite all these possibilities we know that the 
process of transforming a peasant into a great mer- 
chant and a mechanic into a manufacturer is not 
as rapid as some would wish and others want to 
believe. Every Cech community, of course, has 
its superintendents, foremen, and merchants, but 
these men, without an exception, have worked 
themselves up only after a hard and long-drawn- 
out struggle. Dollars and gray hair invariably come 
to the successful man together. 

A young Prague machinist remarked to the 
author: "I shall go to America next spring. I shall 
remain there three or five years, no longer, until I 
have saved some money, then I shall return to 
Prague." That in America one gets rich quickly or 
easily is another illusion. Cech immigration is more 



than seventy years old, and yet how many wealthy 
men are there of that nationality? They can be 
counted on the fingers of two hands. But what immi- 
grant has amassed a fortune overnight? Not one. 
Five years are spent in preparatory work; another 
five or ten years elapse before our Central European 
disappears in the melting-pot. Then there is the 
English language, the knowledge of which is useful 
to the mechanic and small business man and indis- 
pensable to the professional. Without it the new- 
comer is much in the same predicament as the 
handsome prince in the fable whom the sorceress 
had lured into the bewitched circle: he was power- 
less to extricate himself from his position and none 
could reach him from without. To master English 
is in itself a problem. In three, five years, few suc- 
ceed in accomplishing the task; those who shut 
themselves within the narrow confines of their own 
communities seldom learn it except in a perfunc- 
tory fashion. 

In the beginning they held their social functions 
in halls owned by Germans. The reason was obvi- 
ous. Next to the mother tongue, they were profi- 
cient in German. English sounded unfamiliar to 
them. The community grew socially and economi- 
cally, and churches and lodge-halls were built. 
These structures were modest, and judged by pres- 
ent-day standards, unsightly. They answered the 
purpose, however, and satisfied the taste of the 
time. The material used in every instance was 







wood. The Catholics in St. Louis built in 1854 a 
frame chapel (St. John Nepomuk) ; their Chicago 
co-religionists built in 1864 a frame chapel (St. 
Vdclav). The Sokol Slovansk^ Lipa erected a frame 
hall on Taylor Street in Chicago in 1869. The Perun 
Hall, the social center of the Cleveland commu- 
nity, originating in 1871, is, however, constructed 
of brick. The C.S.P.S. Hall on Eighteenth Street, 
Chicago, which for many years housed a language 
school, is of the same material, brick. It dates to 
1 87 1. From wood to brick — a step fonvard. Years 
pass by, the old country sends annually a contin- 
gent of from 5000 to 10,000 future citizens; the 
fresh arrivals augment the strength of those already 
here. Gradually the more enterprising shop- workers 
branch out as master mechanics; others leave fac- 
tories to go into small business as bakers, grocers, 
butchers. The more Americanized settlers begin to 
buy real estate, at first for home purposes, later for 
speculation. Real estate rises in price, property in- 
terests multiply, the well-to-do middle class, ap- 
preciating the value of higher school education, 
gives the children the benefit of high school or col- 
lege training. In time the sons and daughters of 
butchers, grocers, saloon-keepers, and farmers grad- 
uate as school-teachers, lawyers, doctors, pharma- 
cists, dentists. These American-born and American- 
bred children, if they decide to live for professional 
or other reasons in or near the settlement, make its 
inner life not only more complex, but also more 



wood. The Catholics in St. Lx)uis built in 1854 a 
frame chapel (St. John Nepomuk) ; their Chicago 
co-religionists built in 1864 a frame chapel (St. 
Viclav). The Sokol Slovansk^ Lfpa erected a frame 
hall on Taylor Street in Chicago in 1869. The Perun 
Hall, the social center of the Cleveland commu- 
nity, originating in 1871, is, however, constructed 
of brick. The C.S.P.S. Hall on Eighteenth Street, 
Chicago, which for many years housed a language 
school, is of the same material, brick. It dates to 
187 1. From wood to brick — a step forward. Years 
pass by, the old country sends annually a contin- 
gent of from 5000 to 10,000 future citizens; the 
fresh arrivals augment the strength of those already 
here. Gradually the more enterprising shop-workers 
branch out as master mechanics; others leave fac- 
tories to go into small business as bakers, grocers, 
butchers. The more Americanized settlers begin to 
buy real estate, at first for home purposes, later for 
speculation. Real estate rises in price, property in- 
terests multiply, the well-to-do middle class, ap- 
preciating the value of higher school education, 
gives the children the benefit of high school or col- 
lege training. In time the sons and daughters of 
butchers, grocers, saloon-keepers, and farmers grad- 
uate as school-teachers, lawyers, doctors, pharma- 
cists, dentists. These American-born and American- 
bred children, if they decide to live for professional 
or other reasons in or near the settlement, make its 
inner life not only more complex, but also more 



refined. They refuse to live in the dark flats and 
ugly tenements which had housed their parents 
for years. As individuals prosper, their social and 
economic requirements correspondingly increase. 

A prompt decentralization of races, composing 
the old Dual Monarchy, a separation from bed and 
board, an alignment according to language and race 
ensues: a Pole to Pole, no matter whether in the old 
country your John Lubomirski owed allegiance to 
Austria, Prussia, or Russia; a Cech to Cech; the 
Magyar to his own; the Austro-German to the Ger- 
mans from the Fatherland. The State idea to which 
Austro-Hungarian statesmen have clung as ten- 
aciously as the dervish holds fast to his fetich, is 
that moment proved an illusion, or rather a delu- 
sion: political boundaries that had separated people 
of the same race are seen to disappear as a rainbow 
fades. Only two binding ties survive: race and 



THE Thirteenth (1910) Census found 539,392 
foreign-born persons of Bohemian (and Mora- 
vian) stock. Of this number 237,283 were of the 
same mother tongue, 8199 of mixed mother tongue; 
41 ,724 were of foreign-born father, 23,448 of foreign- 
born mother.* 

Distribution according to Countries of Origin in Detail » 

Foreign-born Total foreign 
jgio igio 

Bohemia (and Moravia) 228,738 539.392 

Austria 219,214 515.183 

Germany 6,263 17.382 

Hungary 1,755 2,868 

Russia 1,898 1,694 

Europe, not specified 148 405 

Canada 118 236 

At sea 102 173 

England 30 67 

Roumania 27 38 

Belgium 26 59 

France 22 33 

Turkey in Europe 18 20 

Switzerland 16 34 

Greece 1 1 18 

Turkey in Asia 8 13 

Denmark 7 13 

South America 7 8 

Australia 5 43 

Serbia 5 7 

^ Thirteenth Census of the U.S. igio : Mother Tongue of the For- 
eign White Stock. Table 2, p. 963. 
* Ibid., Table 22, pp. 995-96- 





India , 









Asia, not specified . . . . 


Central America 



Country not specified . 
Mixed foreign 











Distribution of Stock according to States ^ 

Illinois 124,225 

Nebraska 50,680 

Ohio 50,004 

New York 47,400 

Wisconsin 45,336 

Texas 41,080 

Minnesota 33,247 

Iowa 32,050 

Pennsylvania 13,945 

Missouri 13,928 

Kansas 11,603 

Michigan 10,130 

So. Dakota 9,943 

Maryland 9,199 

No. Dakota 7,287 

New Jersey 6,656 

Oklahoma 5,633 

Tennessee 176 

California 3,707 

Massachusetts 3,010 

Washington 2,984 

Colorado 2,903 

Connecticut 2,693 

Indiana 2,126 

Oregon 1,709 

Montana 1,653 

Virginia 1,059 

Arkansas 778 

Wyoming ^71 

Idaho 663 

West Virginia 535 

Rhode Island 346 

Kentucky 305 

Utah 268 

Alabama 184 

Florida 92 

* Thirteenth Census of the U.S. 1910 : Mother Tongue of the For- 
eign White Stock. Table 17, pp. 985-86. 



New Mexico 175 

Louisiana 173 

District of Columbia 135 

Georgia 127 

Delaware 121 

Arizona 97 

Nevada 84 

So. Carolina 71 

Mississippi 61 

New Hampshire 44 

Maine 41 

No. Carolina 16 

It will be seen that the stock is bulked in the 
Middle West. South of the Mason and Dixon line, 
Texas comes first with considerable Cech popula- 
tion, and Oklahoma next. 

Distribution in Cities havi 

Albany, N.Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala . . . 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn . . . 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Cambridge, Mass . . . 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, O 

Cleveland, O 

Columbus, O 

Dayton, O 

Denver, Colo 

Detroit, Mich 

Fall River, Mass — 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Indianapolis, Ind — 
Jersey City, N.J.. . . 
Kansas City, Mo — 
Los Angeles, Cal .... 
Louisville, Ky 

NG 100,000 OR MORE iNHi 

\bitants * 





of foreign 

white stock 


or mixed 


































































24 . 


* Thirteenth Census of the U.S. igio: Mother Tongue of the For- 
eign White Stock. Table 24, p. 1012. 



Lowell, Mass 6 3 3 

Memphis, Tenn 30 16 14 

Milwaukee, Wis 6,370 2,785 3,585 

Minneapolis, Minn 1,649 684 965 

Nashville, Tenn 37 15 22 

New Haven, Conn 109 43 66 

New Orleans, La 98 43 55 

(New York, N.Y 40,988 21,078 19,910) 

" " Manhattan Boro . 31,167 16,506 14,661 

" " Bronx " . 3,206 1,498 1,708 

" Brooklyn " . 1,615 857 758 

" " Queens " . 4,851 2,129 2,722 

" " Richmond " . 149 88 61 

Newark, N.J 1,150 582 568 

Oakland, Cal 229 99 130 

Omaha, Neb 5.414 2,622 2,792 

Paterson, N.J 87 43 44 

Philadelphia, Pa 1,652 778 874 

Pittsburgh, Pa 3.453 1,907 1,546 

Portland, Oreg 354 178 . 176 

Providence, R.I 95 63 32 

Richmond, Va 47 24 23 

Rochester, N.Y 86 33 53 

St. Louis, Mo 10,282 4,118 6,164 

St. Paul, Minn 4,140 1,621 2,519 

San Francisco, Cal 960 489 471 

Scranton, Pa 134 69 65 

Seattle, Wash 402 239 163 

Spokane, Wash ^ 174 77 97 

Syracuse, N.Y 83 38 45. 

Toledo, 393 262 131 

Washington, D.C 135 59 76 

Worcester, Mass 42 19 23 

Distribution in Ten Selected Cities * 

Chicago 1 10,736 Milwaukee 6,370 

New York 40,988 Omaha 5,414 

Cleveland 39,296 St. Paul 4,i40 

St. Louis 10,282 Pittsburgh 3,453 

Baltimore 7,750 Detroit 2,641 

* The Slavie of November 3, 1864, estimates the Cech urban popu- 



Immigration of Bohemian and Moravian stock 
from 1882 (in which year Bohemia first appeared 
independently in the census) to date, the figures 
since 19 10 being those of the Commissioner-Gen- 
eral of Immigration: ^ 

1882 6,602 1900 3,060 

1883 5,462 1901 3,766 

1884 8,239 1902 5,590 

1885 6,352 1903 9,577 

1886 4,314 1904 11,838 

1887 4.579 1905 11,757 

1888 4,127 1906 12,958 

1889 3.085 1907 13.554 

1890 4,505 1908 10,164 

1891 11,758 1909 6,850 

1892 8,535 1910 8,462 

1893 5.548 1911 9,223 

1894 2,536 1912 8,439 

1895 1,607 I9i3 11,091 

1896 2,709 I9I4 9,928 

1897 1.954 1915 1.651 

1898 2,478 1916 642 

1899 2,526 1917 327 

lation as follows: St. Louis, 7000; Chicago, 2500; New York, 1500; 
Milwaukee, 1200; Cleveland, 800; Detroit, 300. The same paper, 
dated August 15, 1865, overstates when it asserts that there were (in 
1865) 120,000 people of Cech stock in America. The tendency 
among immigrants is to overestimate their number, so that if offi- 
cial figures are inaccurate, private estimates are in most instances 

According to the census of 1870 there were little over 36,000 Cechs 
in the country. The Slavie of May 3, 1872, thinks that if to this num- 
ber were added those who, through ignorance, had been tabulated 
as Austrians, we should get a total of 42,000 born in Bohemia. The 
city population was: Chicago, 6277; St. Louis, 2652; New York, 
1487; Milwaukee, 1435; Detroit, 537 ; Allegheny , 324; Pittsburgh, 49. 

* Annual Report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration to 
the Secretary of Labor, pp. 74-75- Washington, 1917. 



Communities having more than ioo People of Cech Stock * 

Alabama: Silverhill. 

Arkansas: Hazen, Dardanelle, Pine Bluff. 

California: Los Angeles, Oakland, San Francisco. 

Colorado: Denver. 

Connecticut: Bridgeport, East Haddam, New Haven, Chester, Stam- 
ford, West Willington. 

District of Columbia: Washington. 

Illinois: Antioch, Algonquin, Belleville, Berwyn, Braidwood, Cary 
Station, Chicago, Cicero, Coal City, CoUinsville, East St. Louis, 
Edwardsville, Granite City, Lockport, Lyons, Madison, Oak 
Park, Pullman, Pullman Junction, Streator, Wilmington. 

* The list of communities is based on the United States official census 
and on private estimates, furnished by persons who, by reason of their 
social or business standing or length of residence, are qualified to speak 
with authority for their respective States. The following collaborated on 
the list: 

Alabama, Anton Svoboda, farmer, Silverhill. Arkansas, John Kocou- 
rek, merchant, Hazen. California, Dr. Clara V. Winlow, social worker, 
writer, Los Angeles. Connecticut, L. C. Frank, former manager of the 
New YorskS Listy, New York. Illinois and Indiana, the late L. J. Tupy, 
publisher of the Slavie; J. V. Nigrin, secretary of the Bohemian Literary 
Society, and Vladimfr A. Geringer, publisher of the Svornost, all of Chi- 
cago. Iowa, Professor Bohumil Shimek, Iowa City. Kansas, Dr. Joseph 
F. Pecival, Chicago (former practitioner in Kansas), and W. F. Sekavec, 
County Clerk, Ellsworth. Maryland, V. Miniberger, editor of the Cecho- 
American, Baltimore. Massachusetts, Joseph Kovar, South Boston. 
Michigan, John Bedrych, C.S.P.S. official, Detroit. Minnesota, F. B. 
Matlach, real-estate broker, St. Paul, and Rev. Joseph Blfeii, Hopkins. 
Missouri, Hynek Dostal, editor of the Hlas, and A. J. Cejka, C.S.P.S. 
official, both of St. Louis. Montana, V. Sim&cek, farmer, Kolin. Ne- 
braska, Rose Rosicky, Secretary of the National Printing Company, 
Omaha. New Jersey, Rev. Norbert F. Capek, Newark. New York, the 
author. North Dakota, Rev. V. F. MikolSsek, Lankin. Ohio, F. J. Svo- 
boda, publisher of the American, Cleveland. Oklahoma, J. Hruska, 
Prague. Oregon, Adolph GrouHk, farmer, Crabtree. Pennsylvania, Fred. 
Kalina, merchant, Pittsburgh, and Rev. Vaclav Losa, editor of the 
Krestanski Listy, CoraopoHs. South Dakota, Monsignor E. A. BouSka, 
Tabor. Texas, Rev. J. W. Dobiis, Houston. Washington, James Tyra, 
Spokane, and John Nedllka, Seattle. Wisconsin, Caroline Jon4S-Sal4k 
(daughter of Charles Jon4s), Racine, and the late Anton Novik, pub- 
lisher of the Domdcnost, Milwaukee. 



Indiana: Crown Point, Gary, Hammond, Indiana Harbor, Indian- 
apolis, Lockport, North Judson, Whiting. 

Jowa: Belle Plaine, Britt (or Duncan), Calmar (with surrounding 
country), Cedar Rapids, Center Point (with surrounding country), 
Chelsea, Clutier, Cou Falls, Cresco (with surrounding country), 
Davenj)ort, Elberon, Ely, Fairfax (with surrounding country). 
Fort Atkinson, Fort Dodge (with surrounding country), Iowa 
City, Irving, Lone Tree (with surrounding country). Manly, 
Marion, Marshalltown (or Marshall Quarry, with surrounding 
country). Mason City, Morse, Mount Vernon, North Liberty, 
Oxford, Oxford Junction, Plymouth, Pocahontas, Prairieburg, 
Protivin, Richmond, Riverside, St. Ansgar, Shueyville, Sioux City 
(with surrounding country), Solon, Spillville, Swisher, Tama, 
Toledo, Turkey River, Vail, Vining, Walker, Walford, Wakish. 

Kansas: Ada, Atwood, Belleville, Black Wolf, Caldwell, Clebourne, 
Cuba, Ellsworth, Esbon, Everest, Glasco, Hanover, Hollyrood, 
Irving, Jennings, Kanopolis, Lucas, Marysville, Munden, Narka, 
New Tabor, Ogallah, Olmitz, Palacky, Pilsen, Plainville, Rosse- 
ville, Timken, Washington, Wilson, Zurich. 

Louisiana: New Orleans, Libuse, Kolin. 

Maryland: Baltimore, Curtis Bay. 

Massachusetts: Boston, New Bedford, Springfield, Three Rivers, 
Turners Falls, Westfield. 

Michigan: Detroit, East Saginaw, Grand Rapids, Iron Mountain, 
Ludington, Owosso, Traverse City. 

Minnesota: Alexandria, Austin, Badger, Bass Lake, Bear Creek, 
Bechyn, Beroun, Biscay, Blooming Prairie, Breckenridge, Brook- 
park, Browerville, Canby, Cromwell, Denham, Eden Prairie, 
Foley, Glencoe, Glenville, Greenbush, Heidelberg, Hill City 
(doubtful), Homolka, Hopkins, Hutchinson, Jackson, Jordan, 
LeSueur Center, Lonsdale, Lucan, Mahnomen, Maple Lake, 
Meadowlands (doubtful), Melrose (doubtful), Minneapolis, Min- 
netonka, Montgomery, Myrtle, New Prague, Olivia, Owatonna, 
Pine City, St. Louis Park, St. Paul, Sauk Center, Seaforth, Silver 
Lake, Stewart, Tabor, Taunton, Thief River Falls, Ulen, Veseli, 
Virginia, Vlasaty, Willow River, Winona. 

Missouri: Bolivar (and Karlin), Gainesville, Fen ton. High Ridge, 
Kansas City, Mashek, Rock Creek, St. Charles, St. Joseph, St. 

Montana: Coffee Creek, Denton, Great Falls, Kolin, 

Nebraska: Abie, Atkinson, Barnston, Bee, Beemer, Brainard, Bris- 



tow, Bruno, Burwell, Clarkson, Colon, Comstock, Crete, David 
City, Deweese, De Witt, Diller, Dodge, Dorchester, Du Bois, 
Dwight, Elyria, Exeter, Farwell, Friend, Galena, Garrison, Ge- 
neva, Geranium, Hallam, Hay Springs, Hemingford, Heun, How- 
ell, Humboldt, Kramer, Lawrence, Leigh, Lewiston, Linwood, 
Lindsay, Lincoln, Lodgepole, Loma, Lynch, Madison, Milligan, 
Morse Bluff, Niobrara, North Bend, Odell, Ohiowa, Omaha, Ord, 
Osmond, Pierce, Pishelville, Plainview, Plasi, Plattsmouth, Pleas- 
ant Hill, Prague, Praha, Ravenna, Richland, Rogers, Rushville, 
St. Paul, Sargent, Schuyler, South Omaha, Spencer, Spring Ranch, 
Swanton, Stuart, Table Rock, Tate, Thurston, Tobias, Touhy, 
Ulysses, Valparaiso, Verdigre, Virginia, Wahoo, Western, Weston, 
West Point, Wilber, Wilson, Wymore. 

New Jersey: Bayonne, Boundbrook, Elizabeth, Garfield, Hoboken, 
Jersey City, Little Ferry, Newark, Passaic, Paterson, Trenton, 
Union Hill, West Hoboken, West New York. 

New York: Albany, Bay Shore, Bay Side, Binghamton, Bohemia, 
Buffalo, East Islip, Gloversville, Haverstraw, Herkimer, Newfield, 
New York, Poughkeepsie, Riverhead, Rochester, Rockland Lake, 
Sayville, Schenectady, Yonkers. 

North Dakota: Bechyn, Conway, Dickinson, Lankin, Lawton, Lid- 
gerwood, Mandan, New Hradec, Pisek, Praha, Ross, Veseleyville, 

Ohio: Akron, Bellaire, Bridgeport, Canton, Cincinnati, Claysville, 
Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Defiance, Dillonvale, Drill, Lorain, 
Maynard, Mingo Junction, Mt. Carmel, Toledo. 

Oklahoma: Canute, Garber, Hennessey, Kingfisher, Medford, Okla- 
homa City, Perry, Prague, Yukon. 

Oregon: Crabtree (and Scio), Malin, Portland, Scappoose. 

Pennsylvania: Allegheny (and Mill vale), Bowerton, Coraopolis, 
Dauphin, East Pittsburg (and Turtle Creek), Irwin (and Jean- 
nette Manor), Loyalhanna (and Latrobe), McKees Rocks, Monaca, 
Mt. Pleasant, North Braddock, Philadelphia, Russellton, Scran- 
ton, Steelton (and Harrisburg), Uniontown, Verona, Wilkes-Barre. 

South Dakota: Academy, Armour, Bendon, Bijou Hills, Chamber- 
lain, Crow Lake, Dante, Dixon, Eagle, Butte, Fairfax, Gann- 
valley, Geddes, Gettysburg, Gregory, Herrick, Houghton, Ips- 
wich, Kadoka, Lake Andes, Lakeport, Lesterville, Letcher, Oka- 
ton, Platte, Ree Heights, Redfield, Red Lake, Roscoe, Scotland, 
Sisseton, Tabor, Tripp, Tyndall, Utica, Veblen, Vienna, Vodnany, 
Wagner, Winner, Yankton. 



Texas: Abbot, Alma, Ammansville, BalUnger, Barclay, Bartlett, 
Beasley, Beeville, Bleiberville, Bluff, Bomarton, Brenham, Bres- 
lau, Bryan, Buckholts, Burlington, Caldwell, Cameron, Cats- 
spring, Chriesman, Cistern, Corpus Christi, Coupland, Crisp, 
Crosby, Cyclone, Dacosta, Dallas, Deanville, Dillworth, Dime 
Box, Dubina, East Bernard, El Campo, Elgin, Ellinger, Engle, 
Ennis, Eola, Fairchilds, Falls City, Fayetteville, Flatonia, Flores- 
ville. Fort Worth, Frelsburg, Frenstat, Frydek, Gainesville, Gal- 
veston, Glenflora, Gonzales, Granger, Guadelupe, Gus, Guy, 
Hackberry, Hallettsville, Harrold, Haskell, Henkhaus, Hillje, 
Hobson, Holik, Holland, Holliday, Holman, Houston, Houston 
Heights, Hubbard, Hungerford, Industry, Inez, Jarrell, Karnes 
City, Kaufman, Kendleton, Koerth, La Grange, Laneport, Louise, 
Lovelady, Lyra, Marak, Megargel, Merle, Miles, Moravia, Moul- 
ton, Mt. Calm, Nada, Needville, Nelsonville, Ocker, Oldenburg, 
Olmus, Penelope, Pierce, Pisek, Placedo, Plum, Port Lavaca, 
Poch, Praha, Primm, Rabb, Rices Crossing, Robstown, Rockdale, 
Rogers, Rosebud, Rosenberg, Rosprimm, Rowena, Roznov, 
Runge, St. John, Schulenburg, Sealy, Seymour, Shimek, Shiner, 
Skidmore, Smetana, Smithville, Snook, Strawn, Sublime, Sugar- 
land, Sunnyside, Sweet Home, Taiton, Taylor, Telico, Temple, 
Terrell, Thrall, Thurber, Tours, Tunis, Vernon, Victoria, Waco, 
Waller, Wallis, Waterloo, Weimar, Wesley, West, Wheelock, 
Wichita Falls, Wied, Yoakum, Yorktown. 

Virginia: Churchland, Disputanta, New Bohemia, Petersburg, 

Washington: Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma. 

West Virginia: Wheeling. 

Wisconsin: Adams, Alaska, Algoma, Alma, Antigo, Appleton, Ash- 
land, Baraboo, Barron, Bayfield, Beaver, Belle Plaine, Belleville, 
Birchlake, Birchwood, Black River Falls, Blue River, Boscobel, 
Branch, Bridgeport, Brill, Brodhead, Bryant, Butternut, Cadott, 
Caledonia, Campbellsport, Carlton, Carolville, Casco, Cato, 
Cazenovia, Chelsea, Chetek, Chilton, Chipjjewa Falls, Clay, Cobb, 
Coleman, Cornell, Cudahy, Dane, Denmark, Deerbrook, Dilly, 
Dodge, Eastman, Eau Claire, Fairchild, Fennimore, Fifield, 
Flambeau, Fond du Lac, Fort Atkinson, Forestville, Francis 
Creek, Friendship, Grand Rapids, Green Bay, Grimms, Haugen, 
Hazelhurst, Hillsboro, Holy Cross, Hudson, Hurley, Janesville, 
Jefferson, Kaukauna, Kellnersville, Kenosha, Kewaunee, Kewas- 
kum, Krok, Krakow, La Crosse, Ladysmith, Langlade, Lancaster, 



Lena, Lodi, Luxembourg, Manitowoc, Marathon, Marek, Mari- 
bel, Marion, Marinette, Marshall, Mauston, Medford, Mellen, 
Menasha, Menomonie, Merrill, Middleridge, Milladore, Mil- 
waukee, Mishicot, Montfort, Mosinee, Muscoda, Necedah, Neva, 
New Auburn, North Milwaukee, Oconto, Odanah, Ogema, Osh- 
kosh. Park Falls, Phillips, Pilot Knob, Pilsen, Plover, Prairie du 
Chien, Prescott, Prentice, Racine, Reedsville, Rib Lake, River 
Falls, Rochester, Shawano, Sheboygan, Sister Bay, Slovan, South 
Milwaukee, Spencer, Stangelville, Sturgeon Bay, Tisch Mills, 
Two Rivers, Union Center, Viola, Waterloo, Waukesha, Wausau- 
kee, Wauseka, West AUis, Westboro, West Bend, Woodlawn, 



THE Twelfth Census figures on occupations 
showed 71,389 Bohemian male breadwinners 
of the first generation and 32,707 of the second 
engaged in gainful occupations. Of this number, 
32 per cent of the first and 43 per cent of the second 
generation were engaged in agriculture. These per- 
centages are large and bear witness to the dis- 
tinctively agricultural character of the Bohemian 
population; taken together, more than 35 per cent 
of all breadwinners of Bohemian origin were agri- 
culturists in 1900. The concentration of Bohemian 
farmers in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, 
and Texas is very evident, not far from four fifths 
of the 18,094 farmers of the first generation in the 
United States being found in those States. Nebraska 
leads with one fifth of all Bohemian farmers of the 
first generation, Texas follows with one sixth. ^ 

All in all few rural colonies were visited (by 
the Immigration Commission) where members ap- 
peared more intelligent or more prosperous than 
some of the Bohemian communities in Texas. In 
the Middle West — Wisconsin, for instance — Bo- 
hemians are reputed to be on a par with the average 

* Reports of the Immigration Commission, v. 11, part 24, pp. 375- 



farmers of any race of the same generation farming 
under similar conditions. The old settlements in 
Wisconsin have attained a high state of prosperity. 

The Commission investigated farming conditions 
in Texas, where it examined thirty colonies or settle- 
ments; one small group in Missouri was studied; in 
Connecticut about 60 farming families consisting 
of 320 persons were visited. No attempt was made 
to investigate the very prosperous communities in 
Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, Kansas, 

To sum up, 32 per cent of the first and 43 per 
cent of the second generation are engaged in farm- 
ing; the balance are massed in towns, working at 
various trades. Retail merchants thrive every- 
where and their number is steadily on the increase. 
Seldom one finds Cechs doing unskilled outdoor 
labor, blasting, tunneling, road-building; they pre- 
fer indoor jobs in the factory and the shop. Mining, 
likewise, does not seem to attract them; at least 
they are less in evidence than other Slavs in the 
Pennsylvania coal mines, coke regions, and steel 
mills. Musicians, professional and amateur, are 

A rather large proportion are employed as tailors 
— 6.9 per cent of the male breadwinners in the first 
generation and 3.7 per cent of those in the second. 
The corresponding percentage for the Russians are, 
respectively, 18 per cent and 5.5 per cent and for 
* Reports of the Immigration Commission, v. i, part 24, p. 9. 



the Austrians 7.9 per cent and 1.9 per cent. No 
other nationalities have as high percentages in this 
occupation.^ In general intelligence the tailors rank 
high; many of them have learned the trade in 
large European cities, Prague, Vienna, Paris. 

A distinctive feature of the occupational distri- 
bution of immigrants is the comparatively large 
percentage (3.2) employed as tobacco operatives. 
This exceeds the corresponding percentage re- 
ported for any other of the seventeen classes of 
immigrants for which the occupation statistics 
have been computed, the next highest percentage 
being that for the Russians (2.1). Of the 2266 
Bohemian male immigrants reported in this occu- 
pation, 1738, or more than three fourths, were in 
the State of New York, constituting more than one 
fourth (26.1 per cent) of the total number of Bo- 
hemian immigrant breadwinners in that State. In 
the second generation the percentage of tobacco 
and cigar factory operatives declines to 7.7 per 
cent in the State of New York and to 1.3 per cent 
in the United States.^ 

Why the old immigration went into cigarmaking 
is not an uninteresting story. In the town of Sed- 
lec, in Bohemia, the former Austrian Government 
operated a large cigar factory employing over two 

* Reports of the Immigration Commission. Occupations of the first 
and second generations of immigrants in the United States, Senate 
Doc. 282, p. 117. 

» Ibid., p. 117. 



thousand men and women. The tobacco industry 
in Austria was a government monopoly. In the 
sixties a few of the Sedlec cigarmakers emigrated 
to New York. The newcomers earned good wages, 
they wrote to their friends, and presently more 
cigarmakers arrived. Eventually workmen from 
other trades, unable to find employment in their 
own particular lines, mainly owing to their igno- 
rance of English, drifted into the tobacco shops, 
and soon butchers, blacksmiths, students, tailors, 
musicians, men, women, and children toiled at to- 
bacco — some in the shops, others, usually fam- 
ilies, at "housework." Editor Palda estimated that 
when he visited New York in 1873, fully 95 per 
cent of his countrymen were earning their living 
at this sort of work. 

The system remembered in New York with 
horror as "housework" was abolished by act of 
the legislature in 1888. Theodore Roosevelt, by 
the way, was very active in the passage at Albany 
of this law. No greater menace to the public health 
ever existed than housework cigarmaking. The 
ban put on it liberated from the tobacco bondage 
thousands of women and children. Even the male 
workman profited thereby; for unable to find a 
job in the shops, which became congested in con- 
sequence, he was forced to look around for other 
work. In time he managed to get back to the trade 
to which he had been apprenticed in the old coun- 
try. In the end the saying, "Every Cech a cigar- 



maker,'* ceased to be true. It is estimated that less 
than 15 per cent of Cechs are now attached to this 
industry directly or indirectly in New York City. 

A New Yorker, well qualified to speak on the 
subject by reason of his long residence and his close 
intimacy with the home life of his nationals adduces 
these reasons why the second generation has given 
up cigarmaking and is going into other employ- 
ments: "The young folks will not learn it and follow 
it as a trade. While it may have been good enough 
for their parents, they reason, it is not good enough 
for them. A girl who has graduated from a pub- 
lic school will not think of going to the tobacco 
factory, there to work side by side with Italian, 
Russian, and Greek girls freshly landed. The de- 
partment store, the office, win them because they 
offer greater opportunities than work in cigar 

Fifty years of cigarmaking are back of the New 
York community, yet how many manufacturers 
of Cech nationality are there? Wertheimer, Bondy, 
Lederer, Krebs - not one Cech among them. 

The percentage of clerks, copyists, and salesmen 
among Bohemian male breadwinners advances 
from 1.6 per cent in the first generation to 5.6 per 
cent in the second. These figures are for the United 
States. In the State of New York the percentage is 
1.2 in the first generation and advances to 5.8 in 
the second.^ 

^ Reports of the Immigration Commission, Senate Dcx:. 282, p. 118. 



In the first generation the leading occupation is 
that of farmer; in the second generation that of 
agricultural laborer. In each generation the four 
leading occupations are the same — farmers, gen- 
eral laborers, tailors, and agricultural laborers.^ 
Four occupations — tobacco and cigar factory- 
operatives, carpenters, miners, and butchers — 
appear in the list of the first ten for the first gener- 
ation, but not in that for the second. In the second 
generation these places are taken by the clerks and 
copyists, the salesmen, the machinists, and the 
draymen, hackmen, and teamsters.^ 

Some thirty years ago a number of skilled pearl 
button makers came to the United States from 2i- 
rovnice, a provincial Bohemian town, known far 
and wide for its highly specialized pearl button 
industry. The 2irovnice workers introduced the 
craft here, and to-day there are some fifty pearl 
button shops owned by Cechs, employing in 
normal times from 1250 to 1300 operatives. This 
represents a total of 75 per cent of the industry 
in the East. The shops are in Manhattan, Astoria, 
and Winfield, in New York; Staff ordville. West 
Willington, Higganum, Connecticut; Carlstadt, 
New Durham, Hoboken, Little Ferry, Cliffside, 
Newark, and Union Hill, New Jersey. The Mother 

* By the caption "agricultural laborers" is not meant seasonal 
labor on the farm only ; it includes the sons of farmers, who live on 
the place with their parents. 

' Reports of the Immigration Commission, Senate Doc. 282, p. 



of Pearl Industry Association uses none other save 
ocean pearl.^ A 2irovnice man is said to own in 
Chicago the largest shop of its kind in the United 
States. A machinist in New York who is interested 
in one of the local shops has invented a labor-saving 
machine which, by way of compliment, he exports 
to 2irovnice. 

Land-ownership, more than any other agency, 
has contributed to the wealth of Cechs in America. 
All prospered who invested in land, the farmer in a 
higher degree than the city man. One can easily 
figure out how much the farmer has added to his 
competence when one remembers that fifty or sixty 
years ago he bought his land for a trifle of $5 or ^lo 
an acre and now he values the same land at from 
$75 to $300 and even more an acre. If the buyer of 
city lots had the good fortune of getting in the path- 
way of the building wave, he was able to dispose of 
his property quickly and advantageously; a less as- 
tute or lucky buyer had to bide his time. Building lots 
were contracted for on the installment plan — one 
or two hundred dollars sufficed to bind the purchase. 
Early recognizing the value of self-help, they joined 
savings, loan, and building associations. With the 
aid of these associations thousands were enabled to 
build and own cottages in cities. In 1916 a Cleve- 
land building association, the Mravenec (Ant), 
applied to the State authorities for permission to 

* Figures furnished by William Lomnick^, Secretary of the 
Mother of Pearl Industry Association, New York. 



increase its shares from $3,500,000 to $5,000,000. 
Commenting on the appHcation, newspapers stated 
that this made the Mravenec the second strongest 
savings and loan association in Ohio. According to 
the report of the Auditor of PubHc Accounts sub- 
mitted to the Governor of IlHnois showing the 
condition in that State of building, loan, and home- 
stead associations as of December i, 1910, 94 out 
of a total of 197 associations located in Chicago 
were Cech; of a total of $17,000,000 assets, the 
share of these Cech associations was $8,785,917, 
or more than 50 per cent of the whole. ^ 

If one strolls along Broadway, New York's 
main business artery, one notices scores of business 
signs bearing Slavic names: Zemanski, Pulaski, 
Chuknin, Malowicz, Verbelovsky, are some of the 
patronymics that beam at one in gold letters. If 
one peeks over the window shutter, however, one 
finds no Slavs there. The truth is that the Slav, 
inclining by temperament to husbandry, is a nov- 
ice, a newcomer in business; he began late and 
with the small capital which he commands he 
must court luck in less aristocratic business thor- 
oughfares than Broadway. The Jews are almost 
the sole carriers of Slavic names in big business. 
To this state of things the Cechs are no exception, 
though some of them have demonstrated their 
ability to grapple with the more intricate commer- 

^ J. E. Salaba Vojan: ^ech American Epistles, pp. 126-29. Chi- 
cago, 191 1. 



cial and industrial problems. The saloon-keeper no 
doubt preceded all others as a business man. To 
open a saloon required less preliminary training 
than almost any other business undertaking; the 
little capital that he needed for the start the brewer 
furnished, and if the beginner established himself 
in a foreign quarter, among the people of his own 
race, he could get on tolerably well with only the 
rudiments of English. 

To deny the great influence of the saloon and the 
saloon-keeper on the immigrant would be disputing 
the obvious. Most, if not all, the lodges and clubs 
which honeycomb the so-called foreign quarters 
have had their birth under the saloon roof. When 
in 1873 the New York cigarmakers undertook to 
organize against the rapacity of the bosses, eight 
relief societies sprang into existence in eight dif- 
ferent saloons. What old settler does not recall 
the saloons kept by Mottl in St. Lx)uis, Slavik in 
Chicago, Hub4cek in New York? To have traveled 
through New York and not to have stopped at 
August Hubd2ek*s tavern on the East Side would 
have been tantamount to a gross betrayal of the 
national cause. The fame of HubdSek's name rang 
from one corner of Cech America to another. John 
Slavik's place on Clark Street before the sixties 
was a recognized rendezvous of Chicagoans. In 
Jacob Mottl's saloon and boarding-house in St. 
Louis, the C.S.P.S. benevolent brotherhood ex- 
perienced some of its initial triumphs. A liberal 



spender and a good fellow, the saloon-keeper, let 
it be admitted, was not always a liability. If he 
chose, or if he was the right sort of man, he could 
be a valuable asset. Of late years, however, the 
saloon-keeper's power has rapidly declined. His 
former prestige is now but a tradition and a tra- 
dition, by the way, which is utterly incompre- 
hensible to the latter-day immigrant. The National 
Halls, which are now found in every community 
of any consequence, have debh him the severest 
blow. Then there are the public reading-rooms and 
libraries, with their foreign departments; these 
take away from the saloon-keeper many a pro- 
spective patron. A formidable foe of the saloon 
are the Settlement and Neighborhood Houses with 
their manifold attractions for young people: gym- 
nastic clubs and summer camps for the boys and 
girls. Last, but not least, is the influence of the 
school, which teaches the young to abhor the 
liquor traffic as something disreputable. 

An examination of the advertising columns of 
the Slavie ^ at the time of the Civil War gives .us 
a pretty good idea of the kind and magnitude of 
business. Of a total of eight pages, which the Slavie 
then printed, the advertisements take up less than 
two pages, and judging by their names, but five of 
the advertisers are of Cech nationality. Dr. Joseph 
Cdstka, physician and surgeon, occupying offices 
at 113 West Madison Street, Chicago, offers his 

^ The Slavie, June 25, 1862. 



skilled services to his countrymen; F. A. Klimt 
informs the public that he has opened a saloon near 
the corner of Van Buren and Market Streets, 
Chicago; Joseph Nov^k operates a hardware store 
at 143 Milwaukee Avenue, and John Raisler, a 
carpenter shop in the same city. Frank Pribyl 
keeps a grocery in Racine, Charles Roth a saloon 
and boarding-house in St. Louis. Dr. J. R. Veeter 
admonishes the St. Louisians to patronize him, 
because "he has studied in Prague and his ex- 
tensive practice embraces every known disease." 
Hynek & Kriz manufacture cigars on the corner 
of Chestnut Street, in Milwaukee, while J. Beck, 
near Union Hall, in Racine, "expects that all 
Cechs will purchase unstintingly of his large stock 
of boots and shoes." If, beside these, we take into 
account a few small advertisements, such as 
Wanted, and Take Notice, the sum is complete. 

By 1865 the roster of advertisers has grown per- 
ceptibly, but the saloon-keeper leads. From Chi- 
cago Franta Bem sends gladsome news to his 
friends that he takes orders for crayon portraits, 
and sells pictures and books at reasonable prices.^ 
John Borecky wishes all Chicago Slavonians to 
take notice that he has opened a New Cech Tavern 
at 239 Canal Street; Anna Brabenec, a midwife 
graduated with honors from the Prague Clinic of 
Midwifery, offers to women, at 153 East Sixth 
Street, New York, the benefit of her ten years' 

^ The Slavic, March 14, 1865. 



experience. August Hubdcek is owner of a Cech 
Saloon at 235 East Fifth Street, New York. 
Joseph Vozkh heralds to the Cech-Slavs the joyful 
tiding that he has fitted up the White Inn at 133 
Essex Street, New York, "where Cech musicians 
give a concert every Sunday; dancing every Mon- 
day!" B. Chladek, dealer in household furniture, 
mirrors, and curtains, recommends his goods to 
the esteemed public, at 36 West Randolph Street, 
Chicago; Joseph Bures & A. Matuska are pro- 
prietors of a Cech carpenter-shop in Chicago. "It 
is situated in Canal Street, No. 237, fifth house 
from the corner of Van Buren, next to the New 
Cech Tavern of J. Borecky." Fiser & KubeS are 
the owners of a saloon at 160 Van Buren Street, 
next to the Rock Island Railroad Depot. Franta 
Seyk, tailor of Kewaunee, Wisconsin, has in stock 
hats, caps, shawls, gloves, shirts, clothing, and 
woolen goods for men. Frank Pivrnec, also of 
Kewaunee, manufactures all kinds of wagons, 
sleighs, plows, and cutters. Masek & Stransky, of 
Kewaunee, sell patent medicines, oils, paints, and 
supplies for painters, dry goods, spices, coffee, 
sugar, hardware, farmers' implements, the best 
quality of boots and slippers made to order, farm 
and garden seeds, school supplies and clocks, 
jewelry, hats and caps, lamps and oil, wall-pa- 
per, glaziers' supplies, writing-paper, penholders, 
perfumery, shoemakers' supplies. J. Vancl & J. 
Kralicek, in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, deal in sugar, 


Male Breadwinners of Bohemian Parentage (Parents born 
IN Bohemia), First and Second Generations, Classified by 
Occupations, with per cent Distribution, 1900^ 


All occupations 


Agricultural pursuits 

Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters 

All others in this class 


Boot and shoe makers 

Bookkeeper and accountants. . . 
Building trades 

Carpenters and joiners 




Other building trades , 

Clerks and copyists 

Draymen, teamsters 

Iron and steel workers 

Hucksters and peddlers 

Laborers not specified 


Manufacturers and officials 

Messengers and errand boys 

Merchants and dealers 

Miners and quarrymen 

Printers, lithographers 

Professional service 


Saloon-keepers and bartenders. . . 
Saw and planing mills employees. 

Servants and waiters 

Steam railroad employees 


Textile mill operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 


Silk mill 

Woolen mill 

Other textile mills 

Tobacco and cigar factory 

All other 

First generation 
(born abroad) 



































Per cent 




^ 6.2 

25 3- 




, 1.0 
' I I 
. I 






• 7 







• 3 

. I 


/ -^ 

Second generation 
(bom in United States) 


Per cent 












• 3 
















































• 5 


• 3 

















Reports of the Immigration Commission, Senate Doc. 282, p. 120. 


coffee, tea, chicory, spices, chocolate, almonds, 
raisins, dates, nuts, dry prunes, pears, and dried 
apples, rice, pearl barley, millet; buy and sell pro- 
duce and pay to farmers the highest cash prices; 
keep in stock patent medicines of all the firms of 
repute, lamps, oils and purest kerosene; excellent 
Limburger and Swiss cheeses, cigars of every 
brand, and particularly a large stock of old wines 
and best beers. J. Gerhardy & Frank Novdk, 
of 100 Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, "hereby an- 
nounce that, as heretofore, they have on hand a 
varied assortment of iron and tinware and other 
goods, stoves included; they also deal in Austrian 
scythes, the latter being the make of the most 
renowned Bohemian and Styrian factories." Frank 
Maly gives notice to all Cech-Slavs that he has 
opened the first tavern, "U Sokola," between 
Fifth and Sixth Streets, New York. Incidentally 
he expresses the hope "that all patriots will 
patronize him." 

The New York City Directory for 1850-51 regis- 
ters the name of John Kubin, jeweler, 357 Hous- 
ton Street; Christopher J. Kucha r, bookkeeper, 
2^] Bowery; the Directory for 1852-53, Joseph 
Hubatchek, capmaker, 19 Avenue A.; Andrew Hu- 
baczek, engraver, 86 East Broadway; the Direc- 
tory for 1851-52, Wenzel Twrdy (spelled by de- 
scendants Twidey), tailor, 91 Willet Street. The 
Directory for 1859, An^thony Pokorny, capmaker, 
213 Avenue A.; Francis Pokorny, saloon-keeper, 



294 J Grand Street; Gabriel Pokorny, turner, 70 
Willet Street; Louis Pokorny, tailor, 213 Clinton 

Francis Vlasdk or Francis W. Lasak {alias 
Lassak, as the name looked after it had been be- 
comingly trimmed by the owner), who started as 
furrier at 376 Broome Street, was one of the 
first merchants of Cech nationality in the United 
States.^ From that street Lassak removed to 19 
John Street, where he remained for years. The 
story is that Lasak owed his start in the fur busi- 
ness to John Jacob Astor. The Lassaks inter- 
married with well-to-do New York families and 
acquired considerable wealth. Another pioneer 
merchant was John Konvalinka, likewise a furrier. 
Konvalinka began cutting furs at his home, 11 
Division Street, moving later to 36 Maiden Lane.' 
The name Konvalinka is still seen above a fur 
shop in Maiden Lane. He died in June, 1896, at 
the age of seventy-five years, leaving four children. 

The Mathushek Piano (now a corporation) 
derives its name from Fred Mathuscheck,* who 
began after the fifties as a piano-maker on a small 
scale at 34 Third Avenue. Another Cech piano- 
maker was J. Laukota, who, in partnership with 

* Trows' New York City Directory. 1859. 

2 Thomas Longworthy : New York Register and City Directory for 
the Sixty-fourth Year of American Independence. New York, 1839. 
' Henry Wilson : The Directory of the City of New York for 1852-53. 

* According to Cech orthography, Matou§ek. In the 1852 New 
York City Directory Mathuscheck is put down as a wood-carver. 



one Marschall, conducted a business at 5 Mercer 

The following table, extracted from the Directory 
of Bohemian Merchants,'^ throws an illuminative 
sidelight on the business life of the community in 
Chicago. The table, of course, does not include 
all the merchants and traders of that nationality, 
rather only those in business there whose card 
is inserted in the Directory. Twenty-six different 
occupations are classified. 

Contracting tailors 322 Barbers 43 

Saloon-keepers 321 Lawyers 43 

Grocers 266 Custom tailors 40 

Butchers 147 Bakers 39 

Boots and shoes 107 Builders 38 

Milkmen 97 Druggists 27 

Confectioners and stationers 84 House-painters 26 

Insurance and real estate Masons 25 

brokers 60 Undertakers 22 

Midwives 60 Music conservatories 22 

Dressmakers 58 Bandmasters 19 

Wood and coal 51 Plumbers 19 

Cigar manufacturers 51 Blacksmiths 19 

Physicians 45 

Lawyers, physicians, and dentists are multiply- 
ing so fast of late that warnings have been sounded 
of "overproduction of the learned proletariat." 
Chicago alone supported, in 1917, 46 male and 22 
female medical practitioners and 78 lawyers.^ The 

^ Henry Wilson : The Directory of the City of New York for 1851-52. 

2 Directory of Bohemian Merchants, Traders, and Societies. Chi- 
cago, 1900. 

3 For the information on medical practitioners the author is 
indebted to Dr. L. J. Fisher; for the figures on lawyers, to Joseph A. 


Joseph Sosel 

J. W. S^kora 

John Kar^ August Haidusek 



Directory and Almanac of 1915^ prints (p. 241) the 
cards of 36 male and (p. 245) 19 female physicians. 

In the number of their inteligence the Cechs far 
surpass all other American Slavs. The great ma- 
jority of the professionals are, of course, Ameri- 
cans by birth or education. Physicians graduated 
from Prague or Vienna are comparatively few, the 
glamour of their foreign diplomas being no longer 
as overpowering as it was in the past. 

Who came first, the physician or the lawyer? 
Obviously the physician, since a diploma from a 
European medical school entitled him to practice 
medicine without an admission examination. Not 
so with the lawyer, in whose case the knowledge of 
English and also of American law was indispens- 
able. And who but a native or a long-time resident 
possessed that knowledge in a sufficient degree to 
enable him to plead cases in court? Joseph W. 
Sykora'^ of Cleveland believed he was entitled to 
wear the toga of the first Cech Blackstone. Fred- 
erick Jonds, however, disputes Sykora's contention. 
According to him, Joseph Sosel of Cedar Rapids 
was undoubtedly the first. F. KoUSnik is reported 
to have been a practitioner in Chicago in 1862. 
F. Parti,, who did a law business in Chicago at the 

* Directory and Almanac of the Bohemian Population of Chicago. 


* J. W. S^kora came to Cleveland in 1863 as a student of the 
Latin School at Pfsek. In the early years he took a conspicuous part 
in the social life of his countrymen of that city. At Pfsek, S^kora 
was a classmate of John V. Capek. 



close of the sixties, was an old settler.^ Very likely 
Parti was a type one encounters in the doorways 
leading to piepoudre courts — a go-between and, 
on occasion, interpreter. Joseph Siller of Texas is 
said to have had a law office at Eagle Lake, Col- 
orado, at the close of the Civil War. In New York 
there was Konvalinka, son of the furrier of that 
name, and John E. Brodsky; on the paternal side 
both were of Cech origin. "From this it would 
appear," comments Frederick Jonas, "that Sykora 
was not the first but probably the third among 
pioneer lawyers." 

August HaiduSek, a newspaperman, jurist, and 
banker at La Grange, was admitted to the bar in 
Texas in 1870. He also advances his claim to priority 
as a valid one.^ Dr. Francis A. Valenta, a Cech by 
name, if not by affiliation, commenced practic- 
ing in Chicago in 1851. Valenta is said to have 
early reemigrated to Europe. Dr. de Lewandowski, 
a "Bohemian" physician, enjoyed an extensive 
practice in New York City in the seventies. Doc- 
tors of the stamp of de Lewandowski, who were 
ready to pose — on the office door-plate or in 
newspaper puffs — as a Bohemian for Bohemi- 
ans, as a Pole for Poles, as a German for Germans, 
were by no means uncommon. Older readers of the 

^ ^ Dr. John Habenicht and Antonfn Pregler: Memorial of Old 
Cech Settlers in Chicago, p. 15. 1899. Reference to Kol^cnlk and 
* The Almanac Amerikdn, 1901. 


A. M. Dignowity, San Antonio 

Adolph Chladek, Chicago 

John Habenicht, Chicago Edward J. Schevcik, New York 



foreign-language press recall with a shudder the 
glaring advertisements of the "Eminent European 
Specialists." Whether any of the practitioners of 
long ago became rich from the proceeds of their 
practice is extremely doubtful. From what Dr. 
John Habenicht has to tell us of conditions in 
Chicago, it may be believed they did not. In the 
first place, people were too ignorant or faint- 
hearted to go to the doctor save in desperate 
cases, when, as the Cech saying goes, "the patient's 
soul is on the tip of his tongue." Obstetrical cases 
were then wholly monopolized by the ubiquitous 
and complaisant midwife, "graduated with honors 
from the Prague clinic of midwifery." Then there 
was the proprietary medicine man to contend 
with — the greatest foe of the legitimate practi- 
tioner of foreign nationality. Forty or fifty years 
ago competition against him must have been dis- 
couraging, indeed. Nowhere was the humbug of 
his miracle-working liniments, pain-expellers, pul- 
monary teas {hrust thee), cough syrups, blood-puri- 
fiers, more obstrusive and offending than in the 
foreign-language press. 

Dr. Habenicht asserts that "at that time [1866] 
there were only two Cech physicians in Chicago, 
Dr. Adolph Chlddek and myself."^ Dr. Habenicht 
should not be understood as claiming that before 
his time there were no doctors outside of Chicago. 
There was, to mention one instance, Dr. Anthony 

' Pr. John Habenicht : Memoirs of a Cech Physician, p.44. Chicago, 1 897. 



M. Dignowity in Texas. Having landed in New 
York in 1832, Dignowity, after a somewhat ad- 
venturous career — he had been a manufacturer, 
real-estate speculator, inventor, saloon-keeper, abo- 
litionist agitator, mine-owner, author, and phys- 
ician — moved to San Antonio, Texas, where he 
died in 1875.^ 

Aldermen and councilmen, school trustees, as- 
sessors, justices of the peace, legislators, county 
and town treasurers, registers and town clerks of 
Cech nationality have increased so prodigiously 
of late that the chronicler cannot count them all. 
Twenty, thirty years ago the newspaper editor 
introduced a column with the caption "Cechs in 
America," and in this column he noted the eleva- 
tion to public office of every co-national. In those 
strenuous days even constables and justices of the 
peace came in for a generous share of newspaper 
applause. The editor recorded triumphantly the 
name of every village statesman rising to fame, 
every school-teacher, every pupil graduating with 
honors or without them, from a high or normal 
school. No one was too small to be overlooked. 

"The Cleveland people have no reason to com- 
plain that Cechs are unrepresented in the police 
and fire departments of that city. According to the 
latest official bulletin, A. B. Sprosty is chief of 
police; A Cadek, F. Sprosty and F. Hoenig are 

^ Anthony M. Dignowity: Autobiography. Bohemia under Aus- 
trian Despotism. New York, 1859. 


Thomas F. Konop 

Anthony Michalek 

John J. Babka Adolph J. Sabath 



captains; there are two lieutenants and 98 police- 
men. In the fire department O. Cerm^k is captain; 
J. Pecka lieutenant and there are 43 firemen of our 

If not the first, Edward Rosewater, who was 
sent from Omaha to the Nebraska State Legisla- 
ture in 1870-71, was one of the pioneer lawmakers 
of Cech nationality.'^ In Iowa, M. B. Letovsky of 
Iowa City, son of John Bdrta Letovsky, paved the 
way for other legislators. Charles Jon4§ served in 
the lower house of Wisconsin, while John Karel, 
merchant, lawyer, and country banker, was elected 
from Kewaunee, in the same State. Among the 
other early Solons was John E. Brodsky of New 
York and Leo Meilbek of Illinois. Meilbek attained 
the further fame of having been a pioneer among 
socialist legislators. 

Lawmakers of Cech nationality in Nebraska, 
Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas, Dakota, Wisconsin are 
no longer rare. More than half a dozen of them 
help to make and unmake laws in Nebraska alone. 

The old-timers thought that JondS was the only 
man fit to represent his countrymen in Congress. 
Imagine, therefore, the surprise of all when in 
1904 a young man, Anton MichMek, unknown 
even by name outside of the city where he lived, 
was elected to Congress by the Republicans of a 
Chicago district. Soon thereafter came Adolph J. 

* The Kvety Americke, August, 1918. 

* The Pokrok Zdpadu, September 25, 1889. 



Sabath, likewise from Chicago. A third repre- 
sentative got in from Wisconsin — Thomas Konop. 
Yet a fourth Congressman of Cech ancestry, John 
J. Babka of Cleveland, was elected in the fall of 
19 1 8. Priority, however, belongs to Michalek. No 
Cech has yet succeeded in being elected to the 
Senate, though the late Edward Rosewater was 
prominently mentioned as a candidate. 

More numerous than either the doctors or 
lawyers are the school-teachers. A recent estimate 
put the number of teachers of Cech descent in 
Nebraska alone at 290. Frederick Jonas believes 
that the daughters of J. B. Seykora of Iowa pre- 
ceded all others as teachers. The two Landa sis- 
ters of Cleveland taught public school in the mid- 
seventies. The elder of the sisters, Anna, married 
Frank Skarda, publisher of the New York Delnicke 
Listy. After her marriage Anna Skarda assisted 
her husband in newspaper work. Later she was 
associate editor of a Texas weekly. The younger 
sister, Catherine M. Capek, taught in Cleveland 
from 1874 to 191 8. 

Anna Nedobyty of St. Paul, Minnesota, Clara 
Vostrovsky Winlow of San Jose, California, and 
Frances Gregor lead their sex as college graduates. 

In recent years young men are forging ahead to 
more responsible positions — as members of fac- 
ulty staffs of colleges and universities. Several of 
them are scholars of national reputation. 

All students of chemistry know the name of 


Dr. Paul J. Hanzlik 

Dr. John Zelenf 

Dr. F. G. Novy Dr. Alois F. Kovitik 



F. G. Novy, of the University of Michigan. Born 
in 1864 in Chicago, Novy graduated from the school 
in which he has been for many years a professor. 
Then he took post-graduate courses in Europe; 
among others he attended the University of Prague. 
Dr. Novy discovered a compound claimed to be a 
preventive for intestinal diseases such as Asiatic 
cholera and typhoid fever. In 1901 he was ap- 
pointed member of the United States Commission 
to investigate the bubonic plague in the Orient. 

Dr. Robert Joseph Kerner, born in Chicago, is 
the author of Slavic Europe (a selected bibliog- 
raphy in the western European languages), pub- 
lished by the Harvard University Press in 191 8. 
For this volume the author gathered material both 
here and in Europe for a number of years — prac- 
tically since he graduated from Harvard University. 
To the Anglo-Saxon scholar Slavic Europe is an 
indispensable aid. When the war broke out, Kerner 
severed temporarily his connection with the Uni- 
versity of Missouri and accepted employment with 
the Government. Because of his profound knowl- 
edge of the history, ethnology, and politics of the 
Slavic nations inhabiting central and southeastern 
Europe, Kerner's advice was sought by war experts 
both here and abroad whenever questions affecting 
the Slavs came up for discussion. Kerner's father 
is one of the publishers of the Chicago Denni 

On the staff of Yale University are two profes- 



sors with excellent records: Dr. John Zeleny, born 
(1872) in Wisconsin, one-time acting dean of the 
graduate school of the University of Minnesota. 
Dr. Zeleny is Professor of Physics at Yale. He re- 
ceived degrees from the University of Minnesota, 
from Cambridge in England, and from Yale. His 
older brother, Dr. Anthony Zeleny, is Professor of 
Physics at the University of Minnesota, and still 
another brother, Dr. Charles Zeleny, is Professor 
of Zoology at the University of Illinois. 

Dr. Alois F. Kovdrik, an lowan by birth, was 
formerly connected with the University of Minne- 
sota; now he is attached to the Sloane Laboratory 
at Yale. The Victoria University of Manchester, 
in England, conferred upon Kovarik the degree of 
Sc.D., in recognition of researches in physics. 

Professors and students of the Prague University 
were genuinely surprised when Bohumil Simek, 
Professor of Botany in the State University of 
Iowa, delivered in 1914 lectures in impeccable 
Cech on the plant life of the United States. They 
were amazed upon being told that the learned 
botanist had never attended any but English lan- 
guage schools; that up to that time he had not been 
in Europe ; that all the Cech he knew he had learned 
in Iowa City, his native town, by self-tuition. 

Simek occupies a unique position among univer- 
sity professors of Cech descent. He was never con- 
tent to act the r61e of a mere onlooker or a critic. 
He felt he was a blood relative and that he must 




collaborate, not criticize. Therefore he joined the 
societies of his racial kinsmen ; read Cech books and 
newspapers — for a time he edited the organ of the 
C.S.P.S. Society; he interested himself in most of 
their cultural problems. Many a youth is indebted 
for his college education to the Matice Society, 
of which the professor is a co-founder. 

Of his father, "a heretic and rebel" (as Austrian 
reactionaries used to call the Cech nationalists of 
1848), Simek is justly proud. The elder Simek was 
a pioneer settler in that part of Iowa where the son 
was born in 1861. For his work as a scientist the 
Prague University recently made Simek Sc.D. 

Dr. Paul J. Hanzlik, Assistant Professor of 
Pharmacology, Western Reserve University, was 
born in Iowa (1885), studied in the Universities of 
Iowa and Illinois, and in 19 14 was a research stu- 
dent in the Pharmacological Institute of the Uni- 
versity of Vienna. He has published important 
papers dealing with subjects in biological chemistry, 
pharmacology, and therapeutics. 

The first professor of Cech nationality was M. 
Charles Hruby, who came in 1834. He taught 
German language and literature in an Ohio Col- 



OF the police reports obtained from the prin- 
cipal cities of the United States, only those of 
Chicago contained records of arrests admitting of 
statistical analysis of the relations of immigrants 
to crime. The reports of the Chicago Police Depart- 
ment for the four years from 1905 to 1908 con- 
tained tabular statements of arrests by crime and 
nationality. The records for these four years were 
therefore combined and retabulated. These figures 
form the material on which this chapter is based. ^ 

Figures show that offenses of personal violence 
are relatively most frequent among the crimes of 
the immigrants coming from eastern and southern 
Europe — the Lithuanians, Slavs, Italians, Poles, 
Greeks, Cechs, and Austrians. The largest pro- 
portion is found in the Lithuanian group, of whose 
total crimes those of personal violence form 12. i 

The relatively large proportion of burglaries 
among the crimes of Cechs (1.7 per cent) is notice- 
able, though ten other nationalities have larger 
percentages of the total gainful offenses. The Bo- 
hemian percentage of burglary is the same as the 

* Police Arrests in the City of Chicago, chap, ix, p. 133, Senate Doc, 
V. 18. Washington, 191 1. 
2 Ibid., p. 136. 



Canadian and the German, but both of these latter 
nationalities have higher percentages of the total 
gainful offenses and of the specific crimes of for- 
gery and fraud and of larceny and receiving stolen 

Among eight nationalities — Bohemian, Chinese, 
Danish, French, Irish, Norwegian, Slavonian, and 
Scotch — no arrests for abduction and kidnaping 
were made.'' 

The nationalities having the six highest per- 
centages for simple assault are the Lithuanians, 
Slavs, Bohemians, Greeks, Poles, and Russians.' 

Of the nationalities from the south and east of 
Europe only the Bohemians and the Russians have 
smaller percentages of homicide than any nation- 
ality from northern and western Europe.'* 

The Polish, Bohemian, Slavonian, Canadian, 
Danish, German, Lithuanian, and Austrian all ex- 
ceed the American white group in percentage for 
arrests for disorderly conduct.^ 

The record of the immigrant as a charity-seeker 
and pauper,^ as a dynamic force in industry,^ as a 
social problem in large cities,^ is adequately con- 
sidered in the Senate Documents herein referred to. 

* Police Arrests in the City of Chicago, chap, ix, p. 140, Senate 
Doc, V. 18. Washington, 191 1. 

2 Ihid., p. 143. » Ibid., p. 143. 

* Ihid., p. 144. « Ibid., p. 147. 

* Immigrants as Charity Seekers, Senate Doc, v. 10. 

' Immigrants in Industries, Senate Doc, vs. 68, 69, 70. 
" Immigrants in Cities. Senate Doc, vs. 66, 67. 



WHILE, as a rule, the young folks choose life 
partners from among their own race, it will 
be noted from the figures given below that mixed 
marriages are increasingly popular. As a matter 
of fact there are not many Cech families unre- 
lated, through one branch or another, to non-Cechs. 
Unions with mid-European races, particularly the 
Teutonic, have been most popular in the past. With 
Latin nations, Italians or French, or with the 
far Northern races (Scandinavians), Cechs rarely 
concluded marital relations. Comparatively few 
are the cases of Cechs mating with other Slavs: 
Poles, Russians, South Slavs (Jugo-Slavs). That 
the Teutons have supplied more marrying partners 
than all the other nationalities put together, may 
dismay the idealist and the Slavophil, but it does 
not surprise one who is familiar with pre-war con- 
ditions in Central Europe. Love not only laughs at 
locksmiths, but it scorns to be made a party to a 
race feud. A vital link is the ability to speak the 
language of the other race; and much as the Slavo- 
phil may deplore it, there still are more Cechs 
who know German than there are Cechs who speak 
Russian, Polish, or Serbo-Croatian. 
The 1 9 10 census made no investigation concern- 




ing mixed marriages and hence it is impossible to 
give later official statistics than those of 1900.^ 

Father born irt Mother horn in 

Bohemia Austria 1676 

Bohemia Canada (English) 154 

Bohemia Canada (French) 33 

Bohemia Denmark 32 

Bohemia England 89 

Bohemia France 68 

Bohemia Germany 4024 

Bohemia Hungary 455 

Bohemia Ireland 132 

Bohemia Italy II 

Bohemia Norway 23 

Bohemia Poland 294 

Bohemia Russia 166 

Bohemia Sweden 35 

Bohemia Switzerland 103 

Bohemia Other countries 223 

Mother horn in Father horn in 

Bohemia Austria 

Bohemia Canada (English) 

Bohemia Canada (French) 

Bohemia Denmark 

Bohemia England 

Bohemia France 

Bohemia Germany 

Bohemia Hungary 

Bohemia Ireland 

Bohemia Italy 

Bohemia Norway 

Bohemia Poland 

Bohemia Russia 

Bohemia Scotland 

Bohemia Sweden 

Bohemia Switzerland 

Bohemia Wales 

Bohemia Other countries 
» Twelfth Census (iQOo) of the United States Population, Part i, 
p. 850, Table 56. Total persons of mixed foreign parentage. 













Is there any particular factor that enters into 
these mixed marriages? Sometimes it is the occu- 
pational contact — employment in the same shop 
or factory — which brings two young people to- 
gether. Common faith, if not a determining, is yet 
an influencing, factor. Years ago when New York 
Cechs were largely employed at cigarmaking, sev- 
eral Cubans, specializing at what cigarmakers call 
"Spanish work," married Cech girls working in 
the tobacco industry. The author has been told 
that in and near Humboldt, Nebraska, Swiss and 
Cech farmers, being neighbors, have intermarried 
freely. The Chicago paper Svornost has recorded 
the case of the Mayor of Traverse City, Michigan, 
who boasted of German-Cech-French blood. 

Cases of curious marital snarls and tangles in- 
evitably occur in mixed marriages. The divorce 
calendar of the District Court of Douglas County, 
Nebraska, contains the case of Gaydou vs. Gaydou. 
The plaintiff was a Cech woman who knew her 
mother tongue and no other language; the de- 
fendant was a French-Canadian who could stam- 
mer, besides his native French, only a few words 
in English. And yet these two, blissfully ignorant 
of each other's language, managed to live together 
happily for three whole months. An Italian cobbler 
in New York, curly-haired and swarthy of skin, 
swore to love and cherish a flaxen-haired Cech lass 
from near Kutnd Hora. When these two started 
out on their marital life journey, their lingual at- 



tainments were so rudimentary that they had to 
resort to the expedient of the sign language. It 
makes one reaUze the truth of the saying that, 
after all, the whole world is kin, when one reads 
among lodge notices in the New Yorske Listy a call 
for a meeting of the "Union of Cech Women," 
signed by Ludmila Cassidy, secretary, and Jose- 
fina O'Connell, treasurer. In this instance the Hiber- 
nian and the Cech hearts and hands have joined. 

Are mixed marriages happy? Mrs. de C, having 
as a widow married a Belgian, does not advise Cech 
girls to enter into wedlock with partners not of 
their own blood. "Usually such marriages end 
unhappily," is her warning. Mr. — sky of Brook- 
lyn, however, holds an opposite view. His two 
daughters have made ideal alliances with German- 
Americans, while his son married a Yankee girl. 
"What difference does it make," argues Mr. 
— sky, "whom my girls marry? They are born 
here, and are therefore Americans, like their hus- 
bands, who are also of the same (American) 



A NOTED violinist came to New York. The 
local Cech community, proud of its renowned 
countryman, gave an evening in his honor. If not 
contrary to the terms of his contract with the 
manager, the violinist consented to play. 

On the great day the Bohemian Hall was crowded 
with people eager to do homage to the artist who 
contributed to the fame of his country's music. 
Every one was plea sura bly expectant when the 
artist arrived in company with his manager, carry- 
ing the magic violin under his arm. The violinist 
played a bar or two of the national anthem Kde 
domov muj, putting into the simple air all the 
feeling of which a Cech musician away from home 
is capable. At that moment, tense with emotion, 
women were seen to press handkerchiefs to their 
eyes. But it was interesting to note the unequal 
effect of the anthem on the hearers. While the old 
folks were visibly moved by the appealing tones 
that reminded them of the Fatherland, the young 
people listened coldly, critically. 

In the orchestra sat an elderly man, a staid 
citizen, father of several children, all of whom had 
been born in the metropolis. As the violinist struck 
the first bar of the Kde domov muj, the old gentle- 



man's powerful frame was seen to shake and his 
eyes grow moist. His son of about sixteen, who sat 
next to him, was also aroused by the music, but in 
a different way. He turned to his father and re- 
monstrated: "Father, why do you weep? Why do 
you make such a show of yourself?" 

Are Cech children not interested in the birthland 
of their parents? Or, to state the case more point- 
edly, are they indifferent about their ancestry? 
The answer is simple: the American Cech youth — 
American not only by cold statistics, but by sym- 
pathy as well, for all that is born in America be- 
longs to America — are neither better nor worse 
than the children of Swedish, French, or Irish 
parentage. Their schooling is American, their 
mother tongue English. The spirit of the Anglo- 
Saxon race, happily blended with distinctive Slavic 
traits, is their spirit. 

When Frances Gregor's English version of 
Bozena N§mcov4's masterpiece Babi6ka (Grand- 
mother) came off the press, the Cech papers in 
the United States were deeply chagrined that the 
book, notwithstanding flattering newspaper no- 
tices, did not appeal more strongly to the younger 
generation. "We are keenly disappointed that our 
American-born children feel so little interested in 
the work of our authoress," commented one news- 
paper. "If Babicka had been published here in 
Cech we should have condoned the apathy of our 
young folk, but Miss Gregor's Babicka they should 



all be able to understand." Yet is it reasonable 
to expect from our American children and grand- 
children, reasoned the same journal, whose heads 
are full of fractions and algebra, to love our ador- 
able Babicka, to listen patiently to her artless 
tales of rustic life, to evince curiosity about the 
contents of that wondrous, decorated dowry chest 
of hers? 

The process of Americanization of children be- 
gins in the primary grades of the public school 
and is made complete in practical life. Often for- 
eign-born parents are heard complaining of the 
rapid denationalization of their offspring. It is 
by no means unusual for such parents, in order 
to give to children a working foundation in their 
vernacular, to make it a practice to converse with 
them at home in the native tongue, to the ex- 
clusion of English. School-teachers are often in- 
credulous that this or that child has been born in 
America, so elementary is the knowledge of Eng- 
lish it brings to the schoolroom. The author has in 
mind the case of a boy, who, though born in New 
York, knew but a few words of English, and those 
he pronounced like a foreigner. At home, for his 
sake, English conversation was eschewed. Having 
been taken on a visit to his grandparents in San 
Jose, California, where there were no Cechs, the 
boy one day came running in to tell his grandfather 
how stupid his playmates were: they could not 
speak Cech! Yet all these expedients and precau- 



tions avail nothing. The moment the child crosses 
the threshold of the schoolhouse, the question of 
his future fealty is settled. With his grandmother, 
or other members of the family, he will talk Cech, 
because he has found out that grandmother knows 
no other language. Let the child, however, sense a 
speaking knowledge of English in any one, relative 
or neighbor, that person will ever afterward be 
addressed by him in English only. The oddity has 
been noticed among the children of foreign-born 
parents, that while the first born speaks the mother 
tongue of the parents passably well, the youngest 
offspring speaks it poorly or not at all. The ex- 
planation is simple enough. When the first child 
came, the parents in all probability were still 
monolingual, knowing no other except their own 
tongue. Meantime, as the other children began ar- 
riving, the parents already had acquired a speak- 
ing knowledge of English; that is to say, they had 
become bilingual. In consequence, the later-born 
children, no longer needing the "other language" 
in their intercourse with parents or older kin, 
never learned it. 

You may persist in telling your child of the glory 
of Bohemia's past; that the land of your birth had 
an old and honorable record long before the Pilgrim 
Fathers landed on the Massachusetts coast. The 
child will answer: But how small your country is 
compared to ours I You realize how futile it is to 
argue with a youthful head to which nothing ap- 



peals more convincingly than physical greatness. 
The tallest mountain — Mount Whitney; the 
longest river — Missouri; two oceans; New York 
now estimated to be the largest city in the world; 
a republic of more than one hundred million in- 
habitants — is it possible to play a bigger trump- 
card in order to convince youthful minds? Prague, 
too, is a city of respectable size? Why, we have a 
dozen towns larger than Prague. Two of our smaller 
States, New Jersey and Maryland, will counter- 
pane the whole of Bohemia with a few hundred 
miles to spare! The area of a single American State 
is larger than the whole of the Cechoslovak Re- 



TWO and a half centuries ago, Augustine 
Herrman, lord of Bohemia Manor, visualized 
a New Bohemia which should shelter exiles of his 
faith and race, as New England, New Sweden, New 
Holland, and New France had been planned to 
serve as a haven of refuge to men from England, 
Sweden, Holland, and France. Pathfinders like 
Ndprstek and Oliverius fancied that a Cech com- 
munity was realizable; the perplexing question 
was how and where to establish it. Kldcel, to the 
end of his days, was obsessed with a like notion. 
He dreamt of Svojanovs, compact groups con- 
ducted somewhat on the pattern of Brook Farm. 
In the seventies Joseph W. Sykora, a member of 
the Cleveland bar, drew an alluring picture in the 
Slavie of a New Bohemia. Unfortunately, Sykora 's 
Cech fairy tale was just what its name said — a 
fairy tale and nothing more. On December 31, 
1865, and January i and 2, 1866, the so-called 
Slavic Congress met in Chicago to discuss the 
ways and means for the organization of a Cech- 
Slavic community. Charles Jon^s was elected 
chairman, Adolph B. Chladek, secretary. It was 
planned to send a delegation (Charles Jon^S and 
J. B. Erben) to Washington to petition the Govern- 



ment for a grant of land. But a public subscription 
which had been ordered to that end did not bring 
funds enough to defray the traveling expenses of 
the delegates to the capital, much less to lay a 
foundation for the proposed community. 

John A. Oliverius urged his countrymen to mi- 
grate en masse to Oregon, and seek in that State, 
protected as it is on one side by the sea, the 
consummation of the long-cherished dream. The 
scheme was promptly voted down by Charles 
Jon4§, who always looked upon Oliverius as a 
harmless fanatic. The projected migration of 
American Cechs to Russia that had been advo- 
cated by J. B. Letovsky, F. Mracek, and others at 
the beginning of the Civil War, was another man- 
ifestation of their yearning to live apart in settle- 
ments made up of their own people. 

Experience has shown that the settlements 
thrived best in which the home-seekers were free 
to select their acres and choose their neighbors. 
Where land agents or leaders of colonizing expedi- 
tions did the choosing for the farmers, there was 
discontent, resulting in failure. 

One of the earliest fruitful attempts at coloniza- 
tion originated in Chicago. Under the leadership 
of Franta Bem and Franta Janousek, a company 
of agriculturists started in the seventies from Chi- 
cago for Knox County, Nebraska. On the way, so 
the story goes, the two leaders disagreed as to the 
merits of the land, with the result that the expedi- 



tion split into two parties : a number of the settlers 
took land in Knox County,^ near the present towns 
of Verdigre and Niobrara, while the other faction, 
led by Bern, crossed the Missouri River into the 
neighboring State of South Dakota and located in 
Bon Homme County. In 1874 a Chicago organiza- 
tion, styling itself Slovanskd Osada (Slavic Colony) 
proposed to take workmen from congested centers 
and settle them in Nebraska or Kansas. About the 
same time some Omaha people organized the 
Slavonia club with the object of forming settle- 
ments in Nebraska. 

The ^eskd Osada (Cech Colony) in Chicago, an- 
other organization, issued this appeal in 1876 to 
prospective land-tillers! "The idea of freeing one's 
self from the yoke of capital and building one's 
own existence in the country is excellent. We recog- 
nize it to be the only feasible and practicable solu- 
tion of the so-called workingmen's problems. The 
fertile soil of the West is capable of giving sus- 
tenance and independence to millions of home- 
builders and we cannot do otherwise than approve 
of the plans of the society." The Ceskd Osada also 
favored settlements in a warmer climate. Onward 
to Texas, Arizona, and California, read their ad- 
dress; let the Cechs feel the joy of resting in the 
shade of orange trees after their daily toil! A com- 

^ The Pokrok Zdpadu of August 3, 1900, contains an account of the 
thirtieth anniversary of the Knox County settlement. — The Al- 
manac Pionyr for 191 9: "What the first settlers in Nebraska en- 
dured." By one of them (Sediv^). 



mittee of this organization was sent to Shasta 
County, California, to report on conditions there; 
a minority opposed the coast State because, in its 
opinion, the price of the land was too high. To 
some, Oklahoma seemed to offer greater oppor- 
tunities than California. One of the most ardent 
partisans of California, Frank Petrovec, a young 
man of the type characterized by Germans as a 
Latin farmer, because he had been educated in a 
Latin school, was accidentally killed by a railroad 
train as the investigation committee neared the 
border-line of the land of promise. This tragic in- 
cident discouraged the members of the Ceskd Osada, 
who were never to taste the joy of resting beneath 
the orange tree after their daily toil. 

A. F. Dignowity of Del Rio, Texas, invited the 
Cechs to settle on a ranch of some thirty thousand 
acres which he claimed he owned jointly with his 
brothers in Kinney County, seven miles from Fort 
Clark and Brackett.^ Dignowity contended his 
land was as fertile as any in California. He wished 
the countrymen of his father, the late Dr. Anthony 
M. Dignowity, to avail themselves of the opportun- 
ity and establish a settlement on his land. Dig- 
nowity's appeal remained apparently unheeded, 
for no Cechs are known to live in that part of 

The Cechs are not the only Europeans who have 
aspired to build up separate communities. The 

1 The Pokrok Zdpadu, January i8, 1888. 


Germans have made systematic and repeated 
efforts in that direction. Witness the Teutonic 
concentration in Pennsylvania. The Giesner Aus- 
wanderungs Gesellschaft schemed to make Mis- 
souri a German State. Read what vision Paul 
Follenius and Friedrich Miinch, two Germans of 
culture, conjured to themselves: "We must not go 
from here [Germany] without realizing a national 
idea or at least making the beginning toward its 
realization; the foundation of a new and free Ger- 
many in the great North American Republic shall 
be laid by us. . . . Thus, we may be able at least in 
one of the American territories to establish an essen- 
tially German State, in which refuge may be found 
for all those to whom conditions at home have 
become unbearable — a territory which shall be 
able to make a model State in the great Republic."^ 
Follenius and Miinch and some followers secured 
land in 1834 ^^ Warren County, but in a larger 
sense the plan ended in a failure. 

In 1835, a society was organized in New York 
by the name of Germania. The main object of 
Germania was to introduce and foster here German 
customs and language. The promoters petitioned 
Congress to set aside a suitable area for exclusive 
colonization by Germans. Congress disallowed the 
petition; but the petitioners, undismayed, deter- 

* Albert B. Faust: The German Element in the United States, with 
special reference to its political, moral, social, and educational in- 
fluence, V. I, p. 433. 1909. 



mined to pursue another course to attain their 
object. Immigrants from the Fatherland were to 
be advised to settle in enclaves picked out for them 
in advance; these enclaves were to be proclaimed 
German-language territories the moment German 
settlers had obtained the upper hand in them. The 
promoters, however, disagreed as to the choice of 
the State wherein the experiment was to be tried. 
While certain members favored Texas or Oregon, 
others thought the Middle West, somewhere be- 
tween the Mississippi and the Lakes, the more 
suitable place. Franz Lohner, who had evinced 
considerable solicitude about the future of his 
countrymen beyond the seas, believed no country 
offered greater opportunities than the area between 
the basins of the Ohio and Missouri Rivers. The 
Irish, reasoned Lohner, made their homes in the 
large cities of the East; the Americans were scat- 
tered over the length and breadth of the continent. 
This distribution of races left to the Germans the 
Middle West in which were the choicest prizes — 
Wisconsin and Iowa. Upon Milwaukee was con- 
ferred the proud title, Deutsche Athen, German 
Athens. German settlers gained ascendancy in these 
Wisconsin counties: Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Wash- 
ington, Grant, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Jefferson, 
Outgamie, Fond du Lac, Sauk, Waupaca, Dane, 
Marathon, Waushara, Green Lake, Langlade, and 
Clark. What reader of older Cech newspapers will 
not readily recognize in several of these names old 



acquaintances? St. Killian is the home of a large 
settlement of Germans from northwestern Bo- 

Count von Castell, an aide to the Duke of 
Nassau, became convinced that prospects were ex- 
cellent for the introduction of German kultur in 
Texas. Castell enlisted not only the sympathy, but 
what was more important, the financial aid, of a 
number of aristocratic families in Germany and 
Austria. In 1842 two delegates, Count Boos Waldek 
and Victor von Leininger, traveled to Texas in 
order to study the situation on the spot. And so 
enthusiastic was the report which these two nobles 
sent home that the Mainzer Adelverein agreed to 
sponsor the plan publicly. A systematic pro-Texas 
campaign was undertaken in Central Europe. Two 
years later (1844) Prince Carl Solms-Braunfels 
started for the new land with one hundred and 
fifty families by way of Bremen. The place which 
these pioneers chose as their headquarters was 
named New Braunfels, in honor of the leader of 
the expedition. 

The agitation carried on by Solms-Braunfels 
had a direct bearing upon the immigration from 
Moravia a few years later. The principal seat of 
activity of the Mainzer Adelverein was at Mainz. 
Now, the Mainz fortress was until the Austro- 
Prussian War in 1866 garrisoned jointly by Austrian 

* Annual Report of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, pp. 58- 
59. 1890. 



and Prussian soldiers. Cech soldiers served there 
among others, and the inference is a reasonable one 
that the projects of the Mainzer Adelverein were 
fairly well known to them. Besides, aristocrats who 
were interested in it as members or patrons, owned 
estates in Germany and Austria, as well as in 
Bohemia and Moravia. 

It was not mere coincidence that the Cechs 
uniformly massed in those cities and country areas 
in which the Germans had been settled. Persons 
familiar with Cech psychology know that the march 
of the Cech pathfinders in the footsteps of the 
Germans had not been fortuitous, but a matter of 
careful premeditation. As explained on another 
page the Cechs were drawn to the Germans by a 
similarity, if not identity, in customs and mode of 
life; besides, educated as many of them had been 
in German-language schools, the pioneers felt 
pretty much at home among the Germans — not- 
withstanding old-country racial antagonisms. Wis- 
consin, we know, was intended to be a German 
State; we find Cech farmers settling there. The 
Cechs began massing in St. Louis in the middle of 
the last century; and St. Louis was one of the Ger- 
man strongholds in the Middle West. Other promi- 
nently German cities were Milwaukee, Cincinnati, 
and Detroit; strong groups of Cechs located in all 

Could the Cechs with their incomparably small 
numbers and slender means hope to succeed where 



the Germans, having the advantage in numerical 
strength, superior organization, and powerful sup- 
port, had failed? 

Judging by the lessons of the past it is certain 
that communities which aim to perpetuate a lan- 
guage other than English will not thrive in the 
United States. The Slovaks at one time started 
a noisy campaign in their newspapers to divert 
miners and mill workers to a Slovak enclave in 
Arkansas. And the result? One village in Hazen 
County called Slovaktown attests the failure of the 
undertaking. Polonia in Wisconsin could tell its 
story of the shattered hopes of the Poles. A few 
decades ago the Scandinavians set out to dominate 
Minnesota. Now Minnesota dominates the Scan- 

No parish school, no church congregation, no 
foreign-language community can long withstand 
the force majeure oi Amencamzation. In a measur- 
able time the Bohemias, Germanias, New Braun- 
fels, Polonias, and Slovaktowns, will be but a 
name and a memory. 



GAMIN America has bestowed on certain of its 
immigrants race-names, jestful or tantalizing, 
over which the learned etymologist may well de- 
spair. The Teuton is called "Dutchman," clearly 
from " Deutsch," "Deutscher." In the olden times, 
before the Yankee learned to differentiate between 
the new-comers from Central Europe, every immi- 
grant resembling the German in dress or looks was 
unceremoniously dubbed by him a Dutchman. 
For the son of Italy the gamin etymologist has 
coined the somewhat cryptic appellations of "Dago" 
and "Wop." Even one ignorant of the mysteries 
of roots and terminations will readily understand 
why he refers to the Mexican as "Greaser." The 
Irishman is " Mick " and the Hungarian in Penn- 
sylvania, " Hunk" or " Hunky." In some localities 
Bohemians are called "Bohoes," in other "Bo- 
hunks"; less familiar are the terms " Cheskey " and 
"Bootchkey." A non-Bohemian finding himself in 
a city quarter peopled by Bohemians cannot but 
notice the word Cesky (pronounced Cheskey) leer- 
ing at him from every store sign: Cesky pekar (Cech 
baker), Cesky hostinec (Cech tavern), Cesky gro- 
cerista (Cech grocer). Promptly he must see a 



connection between Cesk^ and Bohemian. The word 
"Bootchkey," however, offers no such clue to the 
etymologist as "Cheskey"; to get at its hidden 
meaning one must know something of the moods 
of the New York street. The explanation is made 
that in a street warfare the Cech boys of the 
Upper East Side signaled to each other with the 
call pockej, meaning, in Cech, wait, hold on. To 
the ears of the non-Cech playmates this sounded 
very much like bootchkey. Hence, a Bohemian is 

Thus far but one Cech word has made itself at 
home in the English language: pantata. The Stand- 
ard Dictionary of the English Language,^ page 1273, 
gives this derivation of it: '' Pan-tata. (Slang U.S.) 
One having authority; a boss. Czech — pan, mas- 
ter, mister — tata, father. Pantata, pan — mister, and 
lata — endearing term for father (the true equiva- 
lent in Bohemian for father being otec), is ordinarily 
used in addressing one's father-in-law, though in 
a broad sense any elderly countryman may be 
spoken to as pantata. As understood in New York, 
where the word was first used in 1894, at the time 
of the Lexow Committee trial, it signifies a corrupt 
police captain." "^ 

Has any one taken the pains to count the English 
words which have been injected into the Cech 

* Funk & Wagnalls Co. New York and London, 1903. 

' Report and Proceedings of the Senate Committee, appointed to 
investigate the Police Department of New York City, v. il, p. 


language? Glance through the advertisement col- 
umns of a newspaper and you will begin to under- 
stand what inroad English is making into the Cech. 
The following words are taken from a short real 
estate advertisement in the New Yorske Listy: acre, 
improvement, block, lot, mortgage, assessment, 
canalization. It is superfluous to say that the 
Cech language has an equivalent for every one of 
the foregoing expressions, yet English is given 

Note how English looks when a foreign language 

— in this instance Slovak — tries to assimilate it. 
A Slovak weekly, Ndrodne Noviny of Pittsburgh, 
complained in a recent article entitled, "Preserve 
the Purity of our Tongue," of the wanton corrup- 
tion of the Slovak. As transliterated into the 
Slovak tongue, English looks queer to an Amer- 
ican: jesser — yes sir; noser — no sir; sej — say; 
jes — yes; sur — sure; olrajt — all right; kvoder — 
quarter; dajm — dime; skuner — schooner; viska 

— whiskey; pejda — pay day; boket — bucket; 
dinerka — dinner; strita — street; revra — river; 
apsters — upstairs; dansters — downstairs. "The 
use of these and other corruptions," expostulates 
the editor of the Ndrodne Noviny, " has gained such 
a hold on our people, that most of them are no 
longer aware they are using them." As an instance 
of the subduing force of English, the same editor 
tells of a social at which the guests present agreed 
to pay a fine of five cents for each English word 



uttered. In an hour's time $7.55 had been collected 
in fines. 

In the homeland the purists try to keep the 
tongue free from the dross of the so-called German- 
isms. Who will keep watch over the purity of the 
language here and shield it from Anglicisms, from 
erosion and corruption? 

No name has caused its bearers greater discom- 
fiture than Vaclav. Vaclav, be it remembered, is 
one of the patron saints of Bohemia. An ancient 
hymn which is still sung in the Catholic churches 
invokes "Holy Vaclav, Duke of Bohemian Land," 
to save his countrymen from extermination. Some- 
how or other the American V^clavs — St. Vdclav 
has a host of namesakes on both sides of the 
ocean — are not content with the name. A number 
of the milder malcontents have given it a German 
or a Latin form: Wenzel, Venceslas, Venceslaus; 
the majority, though, figuratively speaking, have 
thrown Vaclav overboard, assuming in lieu of it 
William, Wesley, Wendel, James, according to the 
fancy of the bearer. Vaclav is, of course, as un- 
translatable as Roland, Kenneth, or Leslie. 

The Americanization of names is a practice by 
no means infrequent, although it is not as wide- 
spread as popularly believed. Caprice or expe- 
diency prompt one to change his name. Sometimes 
a name is coined as a result of a fair exchange of 
values, Cech for English, provided it is translatable. 
Thus JableSnik is made Appleton, Studnicka is 



transformed into Wells, Krejci becomes Taylor, 
Zastera hides himself behind Apron. In the ma- 
jority of cases the man moulds his patronymic 
along the lines of Cech pronunciation: Korista — 
Corrister; Anderlik — Underleak; Kucera — Good- 
sheller; Koci — Cutshaw; Mrkvicka — Murray; 
Kfenka — Krank; Mosnicka — Mason; Marsalek 
— Marshall ; Nozir — Norris; Cihdk — Jayshaw; 
Hudec — Hudson; Tesar — Teaser; Preucil — 
Prucil; Simacek — Smack. A Nebraska politician 
trimmed his name from Lapicek to La Pache; 
Vancura, a plain Vancura, by a genial tug at his 
surname emerged from out of the purging process 
as Van Cura. Who would sense in Van Cura a Cech 
and not a descendant of a Knickerbocker family? 



ACCORDING to Austrian official statistics, 
960.48 of every 1000 persons in Bohemia 
profess the CathoHc faith, 21.77 ^^^ Protestants, 
16.19 Jews, 1. 1 2 Old Catholics, 0.20 without con- 
fession, 0.24 mixed. These figures, however, do not 
obtain in America. If we were to take the Cech 
residents of New York as an illustration, we should 
get approximately this result: Catholics, 254; Prot- 
estants, no; Jews, 16; persons without any church 
affiliation, 620. Conditions, of course, vary in dif- 
ferent States and places, due to various local 
causes. In some the strength of the Catholics and 
of the non-Catholics is about evenly balanced. 
Chicago is such a place. In others the Catholics 
predominate; the latter is believed to be the case 
in Texas, Wisconsin, Minnesota. It is within the 
truth to say that 50 per cent of the Cechs in 
America have seceded from their old-country 
faith. One author is convinced that the strength of 
the secessionists is nearer 60 or 70 per cent than 
50.^ Of the non-church faction, two distinct shades 
are recognizable; first, the negativists, and secondly 

^ J. E. Salaba Vojan: "Why should we American Cechs be Lib- 
eral-Minded?" pp. 425-28, in ^ech Reader, edited by Vojta Bene§. 
Prague, 1912. 



the dyed-in-the-wool anti-clericals who have sub- 
scribed to Havlicek's harsh formula as applied 
to the priests: give them nothing, credit them 

From what class do the dissenters come? The 
immigrant from the rural districts of the domes- 
tic and agricultural labor class has, on the whole, 
remained loyal to the faith in which he was born 
and reared. Not so with the worker from urban or 
industrial centers. In his ranks, cases of dissent 
are common. Among the inteligence, the educated 
class, religious secession has been the rule, not the 
exception. Indeed, so general was the secession by 
the intellectuals that, before the mid-nineties, the 
churchmen had no lay inteligence worth mention. 

As between the Cechs from Bohemia and those 
from Moravia, the first- named have manifested a 
readier inclination to break away than their more 
conservative kinsmen from Moravia. 

Certain people professed to think that the schism 
was but a whim and a fad and that when the nov- 
elty of it wore off the malcontents would return. 
Well-informed commentators did not share this op- 
timistic view. The whim, if it were a whim, has 
lasted altogether too long. Newspapers have been 
made and unmade by reason of the controversy 
between the churchmen and the secessionists. De- 
termined to outdo the opposition, one faction has 
built houses of worship, while the other with equal 
perseverance has erected club-houses where men 

1 20 


and women could meet "free from the intrusion of 

What is the cause of this decatholization? 

One writer^ asserted that the rupture would 
never have taken place had not Joseph Pastor, 
editor of the weekly Pokrok, thrown a firebrand 
of discord among his countrymen. Before Pastor's 
time, he argued, the Cechs were of one mind, one 

Another was inclined to blame the clergy. The 
veteran priests, he charged, were wont to be 
domineering, and to show their resentment many 
parishioners ceased going to church. 

Still another condemned Kldcel and his subversive 
propaganda. Zdrubek and Snajdr and their liberal 
publications also came in for a share of censure. 

A fourth writer thought that it was the scarcity 
of houses of worship in the pioneer years which led 
to the parting of the ways. Yet he failed to explain 
why the Poles did not falter in their faith under 
precisely the same untoward conditions. A Pole 
migrates from Catholic Poland to non-Catholic 
United States and he remains steadfast, notwith- 
standing the change of residence. The Cech, also a 
Catholic at home, becomes decatholicized overseas. 

An extremist in all things, Dr. Habenicht ^ held 

* John Boreck^: Chapters on the History oj ^ech- Moravians in 
America, p. 13. ^ 

' John Habenicht: The History of the Cechs in America, p. x. 



to the view that "vulgar materialism" was at the 
bottom of the defection. According to him the 
liberals kept aloof from the churches for the reason 
that they were averse to supporting them finan- 

An American student/ whose books on immi- 
grants have elicited wide newspaper comment, has 
no argument to offer; however, he is scandalized 
that there are so many non-churchmen among 
the Cechs. "They are thoroughly eaten through and 
through by infidelity." If this writer had said that 
the Cechs were "thoroughly eaten through and 
through," not by infidelity, but by Hussitism, so 
far as Hussitism implies a challenge to unquestion- 
ing faith, he would have hit the nail on the head. 

The primary cause, the causa causans, of the 
alienation lies deep In the nation's past. To con- 
tend that Pastor, or Klacel, or any one individual 
Is responsible therefor Is as reasonable as that John 
Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry was the cause of 
the Civil War. 

First, there is Bohemia's Hussite past. Though 
he may not be conscious of it, the truth of the 
matter is that the Cech's inclination to dissent, to 
question, to challenge, to dispute, is largely in- 
herited from his Hussite forefathers. In the Amer- 
ican Cech these tendencies burst forth with ele- 
mental strength the moment he landed in America, 
where he could speak, act, and think free from the 

* Edward A. Steiner: On the Trail of the Immigrant, p. 230. 



oppression to which he was subject in his native 

Von Ranke, the historian, avers that Emperor 
Charles IV (1316-78), was the greatest man born 
on Bohemian soil. Admittedly Charles was a wise, 
progressive sovereign. Under his rule many inno- 
vations were introduced, the foundation of the 
Prague University in 1348 being doubtless his 
most enduring achievement. Contrary to what von 
Ranke asserts, the Cechs believe that not Emperor 
Charles but John Hus was the greatest man born 
in Bohemia. 

Non-Bohemian historians are apt to view and 
study Hussitism from one angle only, the religious. 
To the natives Hussitism has a deeper meaning. 
More than any other force it has kindled in 
them, keeping it alive for centuries, the feeling of 
national consciousness. The Austrian conqueror 
in the seventeenth century almost destroyed the 
nation, yet he was powerless to blot out the living 
memory of its glorious past, and it was under the 
light of this great past that nationalism revived in 
the middle of the nineteenth century. 

The Hussites started out to correct certain 
abuses in the Church ; but before long their lead- 
ers, broadening the programme, raised the banner 
of nationalism and struck at the Teutons, whom 
eventually they pushed everywhere to the very 
edge of the frontier. The defense of faith and the 
defense of language were not the only issues in- 



volved. In the course of time the dispute resolved 
itself into its elemental factors: a struggle between 
democracy, which the Hussites championed, the 
right of men to determine for themselves their sys- 
tem of government, their form of religion, and their 
scheme of social relationship; and aristocracy and 
Teutonism, represented by the anti-Hussites, which 
sought to impose upon the individual a privileged 
religion, government, and caste system. In the Cech 
of to-day Hussitism evokes emotions akin to those 
which move a Frenchman at the contemplation of 
the Great Revolution. The things the French did 
toward the close of the eighteenth century, the 
Hussites set out to achieve in the fifteenth century. 
That the Hussites failed, while the French three 
and a half centuries later triumphed, was due to 
causes wholly beyond the power of the Cechs to 

Secondly, there are the country's Protestant tra- 
ditions. That, too, is a weighty factor the influence 
of which should not be minimized. Up to the Thirty 
Years' War the Cechs had been a Protestant nation. 
When the victor had begun to recatholicize Bo- 
hemia following the disastrous Battle of White Hill 
in 1620, thousands, tens of thousands, preferred 
banishment to the renunciation of their faith. Sev- 
eral of the chief rebels lost their heads on the scaf- 
fold for a cause they believed to be a righteous one. 
Far from condemning the Protestants for having 
rebelled against the Hapsburgs, even though the 



ill-planned rebellion had almost cost the nation its 
life, every liberal-minded Cech of to-day admires 
as heroes and venerates as martyrs the men who 
on the Bloody Day at Prague, June 21, 1621, gave 
their lives for the Fatherland. 

Thirdly, the fact should not be lost sight of that 
between the American protagonists of rationalism 
and the revivalists in the mother country the con- 
nection was not only close, but in many instances 
personal. The men who had worked for the regen- 
eration of Bohemia since 1848, clergymen included, 
were thorough-going liberals, even radicals. One of 
the greatest leaders of this period, the man whom 
the American rationalists quote oftener than any 
other, was Charles Havlicek (1821-53), journalist 
and politician. 

Not Ladimir Kl^cel, as is popularly believed, but 
Vojta N^prstek, was the first to disseminate ra- 
tionalism among American Cechs. N^prstek, who 
was an admirer and personal friend of HavliSek's, 
published in Milwaukee, in the early fifties, a lib- 
eral weekly, the Flug Blatter. Though a German- 
language paper the Flug Blatter was read largely 
by N^prstek's fellow countrymen. Many of the 
patrons of the Flug Blatter became, in later years, 
stockholders, readers, publishers, editors, and sup- 
porters of the Cech press. As interpreted in the 
columns of the Flug Blatter, N^prstek's liberalism 
was strikingly like that espoused by Havlicek in 
the Prague Ndrodni Noviny; that is to say, it was 



anti-clerical and a nti- Austrian. "In 1854 the Flug 
Blatter was the subject of some heated debates in 
both houses of the Wisconsin legislature, where 
Assemblyman Worthington of Waukesha and Sen- 
ator McGarry of Milwaukee offered resolutions 
prohibiting the legislative postmasters from dis- 
tributing this publication to the members. These 
resolutions, however, were not adopted."^ 

Vojta N^prstek was born in Prague in 1828 and 
died in that city in 1894, mourned by the entire 
nation. He came to New York in 1849 as a political 
refugee. It is a mistake to think that Naprstek fled 
to America for political reasons only. In his mind's 
eye he pictured to himself an ideal Cech community 
in America. He weighed the matter carefully and 
noted in 1 847 in his diary : " As soon as I am entirely 
ready, I shall start my agitation. In a year and half 
there shall be a Cech settlement in America."^ 

After wandering here and there he finally settled 
in Milwaukee, starting his publication in 1852. Al- 
though his stay in America was of a comparatively 
short duration, eight years in all, it sufficed to make 
an enthusiastic American of him. Upon returning 
to his native land in 1857, he missed no opportunity 
to familiarize his country with American ideas, 

* Parkman: Club Papers, p. 236. 1896. 

2 Julius Zeyer: Vojta Naprstek. A lecture delivered on his seven- 
tieth birthday, p. 11. Prague, 1896. Vojta Ndprstek: Memorial Leaf. 
Prague, 1894. Reprint of illustrated articles from the Svetozor, 
Prague, xxviii: 1420-21-22. J. R. Jicinsk^: Osveta Atnmckd, Feb- 
ruary-March, 1907. 




American institutions, American methods. Amer- 
icanism, it may truthfully be said, was N^prstek's 
life passion. When he came into possession of the 
family patrimony, which was considerable, he be- 
gan to lay plans for what in time developed into 
the N^prstek American Museum, otherwise known 
as Ndprstek Industrial Museum, in Prague. Woman 
suffrage had in him a warm advocate; the Club of 
American Women was organized and met in his 
salons. Ndprstek's hospitable home was a rendez- 
vous of emigrants and none were more heartily 
welcome than American Cechs. "That which the 
heart unites the sea shall not divide," was a motto 
prominently displayed in N^prstek's reading- 
rooms. He never sought the favor of the governing 
class, his democracy being too real and his religious 
views too radical. A New Yorker having once asked 
him what Americans he admired the most, the 
former editor of the Plug Blatter replied, unhesitat- 
ingly, Paine and Jefferson. 

Now as to the part the press played in the se- 
cession movement. 

The Slowan Amerikdnsky, Ndrodni Noviny, 
Slavie, and the St. Louis Pozor, followed the old- 
fashioned programme of Cech nationalism. The 
Pokrok, which appeared in Chicago in 1867 under 
the direction of Joseph Pastor, struck out boldly 
and openly against clericalism. The Pokrok's chal- 
lenge was taken up the same year by the Katolicke 
Noviny, of which Father Joseph Molitor of Chicago 



was editor. Beginning with 1867 every newcomer 
in the journalistic field who had set out to serve the 
" interests of Cecho-Slavs in America " was obliged 
to choose between the one or the other camp. 
Neutrality was a word abhorred equally by both 
contentious factions. Matters progressed from bad 
to worse when Pastor resigned and Zdrubek as- 
sumed his place as editor-in-chief of the Pokrok. 
During Zdrubek's editorship, and due to his igno- 
rance of the law, occurred the sensational libel 
suit which Father William Repis of the St. Vdclav 
parish in Cleveland brought against the editor. 
Trivial in itself, the libel caused a tremendous up- 
roar everywhere; the "infidels" and the churchmen 
alike regarded it as a sort of test of their respective 
strength. One of the fruits of Repis's libel suit was 
the organization by the liberal party of the Liberal 
Union. The Katolicke Noviny having passed out 
of existence for lack of support, Father Hessoun 
of St. Louis provided the Catholics in 1872 with 
another defender of their faith, the Hlas. The 
Hlas had retained almost unopposed the leadership 
among co-religionists until 1893-94. That year the 
order of the Benedictines established in Chicago 
two journals, since become influential, the Katolik 
and the Ndrod. 

The CathoHc adherents rallied around Hessoun's 
Hlas, while the Pokrok continued to fight the battles 
of the liberals. Even in Kldcel's time the Pokrok 
was considered their organ, because the journal- 



istic ventures of the aged thinker never enjoyed 
a wide circulation. After a stormy existence of 
eleven-odd years the Pokrok finally suspended 
publication in Cleveland. 

The defunct Pokrok was replaced in the mid- 
seventies by two new pugnacious journals. One 
was the Chicago daily Svornost, which Zdrubek 
founded in 1875 in partnership with August 
Geringer; the other was the weekly Dennice No- 
voveku started by Vdclav Snajdr in Cleveland. 
These two papers pledged themselves to uphold 
the cause of free religious discussion. Snajdr sat in 
the editorial chair of the Dennice Novoveku for 
thirty-three years. Zdrijbek held the reins of the 
Svornost for thirty-five years. Friend and foe alike 
will agree that Snajdr and Zdriibek kept the pact 
faithfully. Excellently edited, the Dennice No- 
voveku boasted by far the most intelligent, though 
not the largest, community of readers. 

Prior to 1891, the Dennice Novoveku was the 
official organ of the C.S.P.S. brotherhood. One can 
imagine what it meant to the cause of liberalism to 
get a fearless journal of the stamp of the Dennice 
into thousands of C.S.P.S. households. In plain 
language it signified the winning over to the side 
of the liberals of as many partisans as there were 
members in the organization. The J.C.D. sister- 
hood also adopted the Dennice Novoveku as its 
organ; here again new territory had been con- 
quered, new friends won. 



The progressives scored a triumph when Kldcel 
arrived in the United States, in 1869. Here was an 
author of distinction, a much-talked-of philospher 
and intimate friend of some of the greatest men 
and women of Bohemia. A report which preceded 
him from abroad that he was coming to America 
to found a commune of followers, added, if any- 
thing, to the magic of his name. 

Even men who had studied theology or were duly 
ordained as priests, turned against their Church. 
Few of these endured more for a principle than 
Father Thomas Jurdnek. Coming to America in 
1848 or 1849, a backwash of revolutionary Bohe- 
mia, Jurdnek tried hard to get a start at some- 
thing that was more to his liking than the pulpit. 
He drudged for a time at cigarmaking in New York. 
Seeing no prospects in this occupation, he made 
his way to Milwaukee; there he became a fruit 
peddler. Saving a few dollars he bought a hand- 
organ and with this instrument strapped to his 
back, he tramped along the Mississippi River to 
New Orleans and back to Wisconsin. He settled in 
Cooperstown, in Manitowoc County; there he 
established himself as a schoolmaster, cigarmaker, 
justice of the peace, and newspaper correspondent.^ 
He died March 5, 1890. 

Jur4nek was not the only priest to lay aside the 

^ * Thomas Jur&nek: The Contemplations and Reflections of an Old 
Cech Organ-Grinder toward the Close of the Nineteenth Century. To all 
liberal-minded Cechs for careful perusal and investigation, dedi- 
cated by an apostate priest. Greenstreet, Wis., 1889. 



cassock. Old settlers will readily recall the case of 
William Repi§ (or Revis, as he later anglicized his 
name), who in the seventies ministered to a thriving 
parish in Cleveland. Due, it is claimed, to bitter 
attacks by the radical press, RepiS left the priest- 
hood, married, and settled on a farm in Iowa. 

Celebrated is the case of Ladimir Kldcel. Edu- 
cated for the priesthood, Klacel had taken the 
monastic vows of the Augustinian Friars and for 
a time taught philosophy at a school of that order 
at Brno, Moravia. But applying the philosophi- 
cal deductions of Hegel, whose teachings he had 
embraced, to politics and religion, to Church and 
State, the brilliant pedagogue found himself, in 
consequence, in sharp opposition to his superiors. 
Expulsion from the school followed.^ In order to 
"emancipate his mind from the shackles of slavery," 
as the ex-friar described his mental state, he decided 
to emigrate overseas at the risk of losing friends 
and imperiling a splendid literary reputation. At 
that time Klacel was in his sixty-first year, which 
would seem to indicate that his resolve to leave the 
Church was the outcome of seasoned judgment. 
The circumstance that he had quarreled with the 

* Augustine Smetana (1814-51), a Cruciferian monk, was publicly 
excommunicated under circumstances recalling the dramatic and 
sensational expulsion from the Israelite Community, of which he 
was a member, of Baruch Spinoza, the Dutch philosopher. In this 
connection one is reminded of the case of another Cruciferian monk, 
Karl Anton Postl, known to American literature as Charles Seals- 
field, born in Moravia. Postl was a fellow inmate with Smetana in 
the monastery of that order in Prague. 


hierarchy and that the hierarchy had disciplined 
him added, if anything, to the luster of his name 
in the opinion of the American rationalists. 

Toward the close of his life, due, no doubt, to 
worries and cruel disappointments of all kinds, 
Kl^cel turned mystic and visionary. As a social 
reformer he shared Fourier's communistic ideas. 
Fourier, as we know, proposed what he termed 
phalansteries, consisting of a fixed number of per- 
sons who should live together, combining the result 
of their labor. Klacel's pet scheme was the organ- 
ization in the Middle West (he had his eye on the 
Black Hills country in South Dakota) of Svoja- 
nov communities composed of his followers who 
should work the land on the cooperative basis — 
precisely Fourier's project. Fortunately for Kldcel 
none of his communities of which he dreamed were 
realized; had they become actualities it is certain 
they would have collapsed as did most of the under- 
takings of this kind, as for example the most noted 
one. Brook Farm in Massachusetts. When Klacel 
finds a competent biographer who will edit an 
informing synopsis of his philosophy, the historian 
will be better prepared to assign a place to' this 
remarkable man in the evolution of thought in 

F. B. Zdrubek (1842-1911), "the arch-propa- 
gandist of atheism," was the son of poor, struggling 
parents who sent him to a Catholic seminary to be 
educated for the priesthood. Having, as he tells us, 




experienced a change in religious faith, Zdrfibek 
left the Catholic for a Protestant seminary, from 
which latter he duly graduated. Settling in Chicago 
and taking up journalism as a profession, he began 
as lecturer, writer, and journalist, "to combat the 
menace of bigotry and superstition among his 

Few journalists waged a more relentless warfare 
against the clergy than Joseph Pastor, editor of the 
Pokrok, who served a novitiate with the friars of 
2eliv Abbey. 

John V. Capek, author of the humorous life of 
St. Anthony of Padua, in verse, spent a school 
semester or two with the Franciscans in Prague. 
Capek asserted that it was in the monastic cell 
that his theological ideals underwent a change. 

Barto§ Bittner and Alois Janda both took a 
course in Catholic theological seminaries, both re- 
belling in the end. 

Dr. Frank I§ka started his career as a priest. 
Unable to believe what he preached, he went over 
to the Old Catholic Church. In 1902 he arrived in 
the United States with the idea, it is said, of organ- 
izing in Chicago a congregation of Old Catholics. 
Failing in this, he returned to his native country, 
but the following year came back, establishing a 
permanent residence in Chicago. Casting aside Old 
Catholicism, he avowed his adhesion to the prin- 
ciples for which Kl^cel and Zdrubek fought all 
their lives — freedom of religious expression. 



J. B. Erben of St. Louis, the oldest living Cech 
journalist in the country, is said to have run away, 
as a student, from a Benedictine monastery in Bohe- 
mia where he was being educated. Embracing the 
evangelical faith, Erben, who knew German as 
well as his mother tongue, gave himself to religious 
work among the Germans in the United States. 

Tragic was the end of John C. Hojda, spiritual 
head of the St. Vaclav parish in Baltimore. Re- 
signing his charge and at the same time renouncing 
his faith, Hojda eked out a scanty existence on the 
Baltimore Telegraf, a struggling Cech weekly. Sub- 
sequently he took up horticulture for a living. In a 
fit of insanity, due, it is said, to brooding over 
family matters, he killed two of his children. He 
was placed in an asylum, where he died in 1898. 

Rationalistic tenets, so far as known, claimed 
two converts from among the Protestants. One was 
a minister by the name of Joseph Kalda, a restless, 
discontented spirit. For a Chicago publishing house 
Kalda edited a book of Funeral Speeches for the 
use of those who wished non-church burial. Kalda 
died in want in Chicago under particularly dis- 
tressing circumstances. A recent convert to ration- 
alism is V. Mineberger, editor of the Baltimore 
Cecho-Slovan. Mineberger announced that it was 
his resolve to leave the Church in whose teachings 
he no longer believed. Like Zdrubek, Mineberger, 
too, was originally a Catholic. 

A strange case came to the notice of the public 



about eight years ago. The secretary of a New 
York liberal association, Anton VlSek, died follow- 
ing a short illness. VlCek's occupation was that of 
a bookkeeper in a downtown business house. After 
his death the members of the society were as- 
tounded to learn that their radical-minded official 
had been none other than Father Anton Vlcek, 
formerly pastor of the St. Prokop Catholic parish 
in Cleveland. The surprising part of it was that 
Vl^ek contrived to guard the secret of his former 
life even from intimates. 

Rev. Vaclav Vanek, a well-known Protestant 
divine, formerly attached to a parish in Baltimore, 
but now located in Chicago, originally studied 
theology in a Catholic seminary; finding himself 
in dissent from Catholic teachings he joined the 
Chicago coterie of journalists, of whom the late 
B. Bittner, liberal thinker, was one. 

Cech rationalism ^ in the United States is the 

* T. G. Masaryk: "Cech Liberals in America," Na^e Doha 
(Prague), October, 1902, pp. 1-7; Rev. F. Tich^: Thoughts on New 
Religion. An answer to L. J. Palda. Probed into and submitted to an 
impartial examination. 88 pp.; Cech American Liberalism, IQ07-11, 
or. Discussions, Deliberations and Resolutions passed at the Conven- 
tion of Liberals, 135 pp. New York, 191 1; Discussions, Deliberations 
and Resolutions passed at the Convention of Liberals, held June 13, 14, 
and 15, 1907. Chicago. 182 pp.; Lectures by T. G. Masaryk: Pub- 
lished by the Executive Committee of the Liberal Union. 61 pp. 
Chicago, 1907. Contents of the lectures: "HavHcek and the Liberal 
Movement; "Liberalism and Religion"; "Religion and Human 
Society"; "The Principles adopted at the Convention of Cech 
Liberals in America"; "The Evolution of Liberalism"; "The Politi- 
cal Situation of the Cech Nation and Austria"; "The Woman and 
her Position in the Family and Public Life." 


after-growth of political repression and narrow- 
minded paternalism. Ndprstek's Plug Blatter fought 
not creeds, but the Church as a political institution, 
as a partner of the Hapsburg State. Euphemisti- 
cally Havlicek defined this one-time fellowship of 
the Hapsburg State and the Church as a "union 
of the saber and the aspergill." Now, when the 
fetters of bondage are shattered and in his home- 
land the Cech is as free as he is here, whence will 
the militant rationalist derive his inspiration and 
his slogans? 



LJ. PALDA is entitled to be called the father 
• of Cech socialism in the United States. In 
his autobiography Palda states that his admiration 
for Lassalle and Marx dates from the time he 
worked as a factory hand, a weaver, in Switzerland 
and Saxony. This statement is open to doubt, for 
at the time of his arrival in New York, in 1867, 
Palda was a youth barely twenty years old. The 
more reasonable supposition is that the socialist 
cult obtained a firm hold on him not in Switzerland 
or Saxony, but in the United States, during his 
development into maturer manhood, when the 
laboring class, yielding to his forceful personality, 
acclaimed him as one of its chiefs. Just how deeply 
Palda was read in the party's literature, we glean 
from the following sentence: "At the house of 
friend BoroviSka (New York) I came across 
HavliSek's Duch Ndrodnich Novin and a treatise 
on socialism and communism by Kldcel."^ To- 
gether with Frank Skarda he founded in Cleveland 
in 1875, DUnicke Listy (the Workingmen's News). 

* L. J. Palda: From Times Past. These reminiscences, in Cech, 
were published serially in the Osveta Americkd in 1903. Borovicka, 
here referred to, was an intelligent New York workman, reader of 
good books, and, at the time of Palda's first stay in New York, a 
caretaker of the library belonging to the Slovanskd Lipa Society. 


The motto of the paper was "Equal duties, equal 
rights." The title-page bore the significant legend 
that the Workingmen's News was being published 
as the "Organ of the Socialist Workingmen's Party 
in the United States." Precisely what socialist 
party the paper claimed to be the official spokes- 
man of, and who the members of the party were, 
has not been made clear. Joseph Bunata,i a con- 
temporary and a party man, admits there were 
Cech socialists in the country at that time (1875), 
yet he recalls nothing of an organized socialist 
party. For instance, Leo Meilbek, a member of the 
Illinois legislature, classified himself as a social 
democrat. Palda's business partner, Frank Skarda, 
was nominated, though not elected, on the socialist 
ticket for Lieutenant-Governor of Ohio. 

Two years later (1877) the Delnicke Listy was 
removed to New York City, the publishers cor- 
rectly surmising that the metropolis offered to a 
socialist paper a wider field than an inland city of 
the size and location of Cleveland. 

In Palda's reminiscences we are told that soon 
after the removal of the paper to New York, its 
editor started organizing socialist clubs. The war- - 
cry, "Proletarians of the world, unite," demanded 
not words, but action, he informs us. "The group 
I helped to organize bore the name, Cech-Slavic 
International Workingmen's Association of New 

^ Joseph Bunata, a journalist living at Ennis, Texas, has long ago 
renounced his adherence to socialism. 



York." The principal members (besides Palda) 
were V. Jandus,^ George Sretr, Joseph Bunata, and 
Bil^. The last-named was an arrival from Paris. 

In justice to Palda, it should be said that in his 
advocacy of socialism he was conciliatory. He was 
well aware of the fact that the doctrine was foreign 
to the mass of his countrymen, most of whom had 
emigrated from rural districts, and he was a patient 
teacher. Like all socialists, he believed, of course, 
that our social and economic order was unjust; yet 
he held consistently to the viewpoint that society 
had it in its power to purge itself, not by revolution, 
but by evolution. Moreover, he was not convinced 
that in obedience to the party's behests he must re- 
nounce his Cech nationalism. In this last regard he 
was what we might call a Nationalist Socialist. As 
his mind ripened, his views ran more along the lines 
of scientific socialism; that is, he predicted the 
coming of socialism as the result of gradual eco- 
nomic evolution. Younger comrades,who were eager 
for action, tried more than once to discredit Palda 
in the esteem of the party. Pettifogger, capitalist in 
disguise, were some of the epithets hurled at him in 
their press. Palda's missionary work in America 
would have, in all likelihood, come to naught, had 
not events occurred at home which gave socialism 
here a firmer footing. In 1879 social democrats 

^ V. (William) Jandus, since 1876 a resident of Cleveland, pub- 
lished in the English language a forceful study, Social Wrongs and 
State Responsibilities. Cleveland. Horace Carr. 1913. 


held in Prague a secret meeting which has become 
known in the annals of the party as the St. Mar- 
garet's Congress. (St. Margaret was the name of 
a hall in Prague.) Convoked without a permit, the 
Congress was dispersed by the police and a number 
of the leaders arrested and thrown into prison. 

Once on the police black-list, the more prominent 
of the socialists found existence in Bohemia unen- 
durable. So they removed to other parts of the em- 
pire, not a few leaving it altogether. Some went 
to Budapest; others escaped to Switzerland; still 
others chose as their future homes great industrial 
centers in Europe and America: Paris, London, 
New York, Chicago. On January 30, 1884, martial 
law was proclaimed in Vienna. A direct result of 
this measure was the suspension of the constitu- 
tional rights of trial by jury (non-political cases 
excepted), freedom of association of citizens, and 
freedom of the press. With a stern hand the police 
dissolved political clubs, suppressed newspapers, 
arrested or expelled the leading agitators. So rigor- 
ous was the clean-up that by 1885 social democracy 
in Austria was laid prostrate.^ Comrade Josef Hy- 
bes^ reckoned that in the period between 1878-87 

^ Dr. Edward BeneS: The Labor Movement in Austria and Bo- 
hemia. 47 pp. Brandys n. L. 191 1. 

2 Josef HybeS: The Initial Days of the Propaganda among Cech 
Comrades. 64 pp. Brno, 1900. HybeS gives account in his pamphlet 
of their connection with the propaganda in Prague and Vienna of 
comrades Mikolanda, Mil^, Zoula, Choura, all of whom had emi- 
grated to America. 



the police, employing all those devices favored by 
the secret police of autocracy, had ruined the exist- 
ence of some 2000 socialists. According to Josef 
Steiner ^ the political police had to its credit 4086 
arrests and convictions between 1 880-89. A look at 
Steiner's revelatory statistics will enable one to 
understand why Emperor Franz Josef nursed a 
personal grudge against social democrats. 

Steiner's Table 

Sentenced for 

Unlawful association 


L^ majest6 (person 
of Emperor) 

Lfee majeste (mem- 
bers of reigning 

Disturbing peace . . . 

Unlawful collection 
of funds 

Total 4086 






















































All accounts agree that one of the first fugitive 
socialists to arrive in America was Leo Kochmann 
(1844-19 1 9), who escaped on the eve of going to 
jail to serve a sentence for active participation in 
the St. Margaret's Congress. Frank Skarda, who 
at that time (1882) was looking about for an editor, 
promptly gave Kochmann employment on the 
Delnicke Listy. From this time on until he retired 

* Josef Steiner: The Martyrdom of Cech-Slavic Social Democracy 
and the Progress of the Party in Austria. 178 pp. Prague, 1902. 



from journalism (191 3), Kochmann resided In New 
York uninterruptedly, and the colony of social 
democrats in that city came to regard him as one 
of its strong men. Far below Palda in intelligence, 
possessing but an elementary-school education, dif- 
fident as a speaker, upright, but in his earlier 
years inclined to be fanatical, Kochmann was toler- 
ably well posted on the aims and literature of social 
democracy. However, his party was his world, and 
beyond the sky-line of that world he had neither the 
ambition nor the courage to look. The revolutionary 
verses appearing under his pen name, Vive la Lib- 
erte, were sincere and on occasions spirited. In col- 
laboration with Frank J. Hlavacek and Bernard 
Here, Kochmann rendered into Cech (1890) Blos's 
French Revolution. For a quarter of a century he was 
editor-in-chief of the New York daily, Hlas Lidu. 

In 1882 Johann Most came to the United States. 
He had just finished a jail term of sixteen months 
in England for having glorified, in his journal, the 
assassination of Alexander II, Czar of Russia. Be- 
fore that time Most had served terms in Austrian, 
Saxon, and Prussian prisons. Soon after his arrival, 
he undertook a speaking tour through the country. 
Social democrats were surprised at the large num- 
ber of followers who flocked everywhere to Most's 
standard. In several cities in the United States, 
where Most delivered his harangues, anarchist clubs 
were established. A convention of radicals was held 
in Pittsburgh in 1883; and the New York police 



having in the meantime taken measures to check 
the local Most agitation, the headquarters of the 
party were transferred from New York to Chicago. 
Then followed, in 1886, the Haymarket tragedy 
which aroused and angered American public opin- 
ion as no other similar event has ever done. A num- 
ber of the organizers of the riot suffered the death 
penalty. At the same time the authorities launched 
a crusade against the anarchists from which they 
have never recovered.^ 

The fact cannot be denied that Johann Most 
found ardent sympathizers among those Cech social 
democrats who were dissatisfied with the orthodox, 
scholarly socialism of Marx and Lassalle, and who 
clamored for deeds. Literature and party news- 
papers prove this irrefutably. 

The protagonists of revolutionary socialism were, 
with a few exceptions, workmen, but workme of 
the more intelligent and well-paid class — furriers, 
tailors, machinists, typesetters, — who had learned 
their trade or worked at it in large cities. The earn- 
ing power of these craftsmen was comparatively 

* Hillquit thus differentiates between the socialist and the an- 
archist: "The anarchist sees the highest state of development in 
the absolute sovereignty of the individual, and considers all social 
restraints upon the personal and untrammeled personal liberty as 
injurious and reactionary elements in human civilization [p. 231]. 
The socialist regards society as an organic body, of which the in- 
dividuals are but separate organs performing different functions for 
the organism as a whole and in turn deriving their strength from the 
well-being of the entire organism" (p. 230). Morris Hillquit: History 
of Socialism in the United States. 234 pp. New York, 1903. 


high ; In intelligence they towered far above the un- 
skilled agricultural and domestic labor from the 
non-industrial districts of Kutna Hora, Tdbor, 
Pisek. Association with men and women of other 
races lent these men that air of cosmopolitanism 
which is the envy of the provincial. Not a few were 
glib talkers, if not effective, persuasive impromptu 
debaters; when oratory failed to convince the 
doubter through presentation of reasons, they were 
ready to try to sway the wavering ones by appeal to 
passion and prejudice. Most idealists, as we know, 
possess the gift of eloquence to an unusual degree. 
In addition to the vernacular, almost all, if not all, 
were versed in German. This enabled them to read 
German-language newspapers, and associate freely 
with German comrades. Those who had been em- 
ployed in Paris brought with them to America a 
smattering of French. The members of the small 
London colony learned English. Comrades with a 
literary turn of mind, on coming to the United 
States translated almost exclusively from German 
sources; seldom from English or French, never from 
Russian. This made apparent the dominating influ- 
ence of the several Volkszeitungs, Arbeiterzeitungs, 
and Volksrechts on the American Cech socialist 
editors. But few of the journalists knew English 
enough freely to translate from it. This meant that 
they judged America in the light of a foreign dogma 
and sought to reform it through the medium of a 
foreign language. 



Proselytism by means of the press reached its 
high-water mark between 1885 and 1890. New York 
City was the center of the movement; less active 
was the field of the radicals in Cleveland and Chi- 
cago. By far the busiest publishers were: 

The Cech groups of the International Working- 
men's Union of Chicago (Ceske skupiny Mezind- 
rodni Delnicke Jednoty v Chicagu). Series, Epistles 
of Revolution. 

The American Workingman (Delnik Americky). 
Series, Workingmen's Library. 

The Group Anarchy (Bezvlddi) of New York. 
Series, The International Library. 

The Group Self- Rule (Samosprdva) of New York. 
Series, The Epistles of Freedom. 

The Literary and Debating Club Progress (Pok- 
rok) of New York. 

The Cech Workingmen's Educational Society 
No. 2 of New York (Ceskodelnicky vzdeldvaci 
Spolek 2is. 2 v New Yorku). 

The Cech Social Democratic Section in New 
York (Cesk^ socidlnf demokratickd sekce v New 

The Group Bezvlddi attained a considerable posi- 
tion as a publisher. While not strong numerically, 
its membership was made up of self-conscious 
young men who knew that to carry on a propa- 
ganda with results costs money, but they were will- 
ing to pay for it. Members taxed themselves from 
$1 to $5 monthly according to the wages they 



earned. Now and then London and Paris sent in 
small gifts of money; even comrades in Bohemia 
contributed their mite. The main burden of financ- 
ing the propaganda was borne and ungrudgingly- 
paid by the New York units. 

Save a few revolutionary songs by Norbert 
Zoula, Joseph B. Pecka, Leo Kochmann, and F. J. 
Hlavdcek, the Cech book literature of social re- 
formers, which, by the way, is surprisingly copious, 
consists of translations. Not one creative thinker, 
not one self-directing reasoner appears among 
them. The catalogue shows translations — un- 
skilled translations at that — from Michael Baku- 
nine, Adolf Douai, Peter Kropotkin, Paul Lafargue, 
Enrico Malatesta, Karl Marx, Johann Most, J. A. 
Popengiesel, Elisee Reclus, A. Rette, A. Schaffle, 
Pierre Ramus, Ferdinand Lassalle. 

In due time the consequences of the propaganda 
began to be manifest. The New York community 
split into two antagonistic factions : the nationalists 
and the radical socialists. The first-named party 
stood for Americanism ; as a subordinate issue, it de- 
fended Cech nationalism as interpreted by JondS 
and by the other editors. Agreeably to the tenets 
of their creed, the socialists inclined toward inter- 
nationalism, which, as the name implies, spurned 
national separatism. From radical socialism to 
anarchism was only a small leap and there were 
many reformers who embraced the creed of anar- 
chy openly. 



Thoughtful and observant men, Palda among 
them, warned the radicals, clustered around the 
Proletdr and the Delnicke Listy ^ in New York and 
around the Budoucnost, in Chicago, to be moderate. 
The agitation, they pointed out, was doomed to end 
in a fiasco if not supported by the American press. 
Who was it that sympathized with the radicals, 
they argued? Not the American workman, nor yet 
the farmer; these two classes remained deaf to their 
seductive catchwords. The farmer and the mechanic 
read none save the English-language papers, which 
discussed the timely topics of trade-unionism, tariff, 
pension, currency. Radical socialism found favor 
and support in large industrial places only, and then 
in the foreign quarters thereof. "Anarchy is hope- 
lessly discounted," argued Palda, "so long as the 
carriers of the doctrine are confined to Volkszeit- 
ungs and to other foreign-language newspapers." 

But a writer in the Proletdr reproved the father 
of socialism for interfering in a quarrel the merits of 
which he, a capitalist ( !) and a westerner, had ceased 
to understand. 

The advent in New York of Norbert Zoula,^ a 
silversmith from Prague, is chronicled in 1883. 
Zoula spent a year and a half in an Austrian prison 

* This Delnicke Listy must not be confounded with Skarda's paper 
of that name. The DMnicke Listy here mentioned was the property 
of the International Workingmen's Union of New York, edited by 
F. J. HlavdCek. 

* According to one account Zoula was by birth a Slovene, not a 


awaiting trial; after finishing a sentence of ten 
months, he repaired to Switzerland, from which 
country he emigrated here. After a comparatively 
short stay in New York, he proceeded to Chicago to 
edit in that city the Budoucnost (Future), "organ 
of anarchists of the Cech-Slavic language." His 
associates in the management of the paper were 
Joseph Pondelicek, Jacob Mikolanda, Joseph B. 
Pecka. The vigorous police censorship which fol- 
lowed the Chicago Haymarket outbreak forced 
this journal, like many other anarchist papers, to 
suspend. The year the Budoucnost sang its swan 
song, Zoula died in California of tuberculosis, "the 
common malady of the proletariat," a newspaper 
commented at the time : and he died in utter want, 
deserted by his comrades. 

Joseph Boleslav Pecka, moulder by trade, made 
his appearance in Chicago in 1884. As the recording 
secretary of St. Margaret's Congress, he brought 
upon himself in the motherland the anger of the 
police. For this with thirty other comrades he was 
put into prison. His "portion " was eighteen months 
and he served his term in full. Having been active 
in Vienna as collaborator of the Delnicke Listy, he 
needed no urging to do his share in the press prop- 
aganda of the party in America. He died in Chicago 
in 1897, in his forty-eighth year. Two years after his 
death, comrades published his Sebrane Bdsne (Col- 
lected Songs). Pecka's style as a journalist was 
vigorous and clear. The Collected Songs (92 pages) 



are the revolutionary rhapsodies of the downtrod- 
den proletarian. 

Jacob Mikolanda, a baker, migrated in 1882 
or 1883. He became connected with the Chicago 
Budoucnost, and when this radical paper was forced 
to the wall, he wrote for the Prdvo Lidu (People's 
Rights), a weekly of more moderate tone than the 
Budoucnost. For alleged complicity in the Hay- 
market affair Mikolanda was sent to the work- 
house for six months. His death occurred in Cleve- 

Frank J. HlavdSek, now on the editorial staff of 
the Chicago daily Spravedlnost (Justice), began life 
as a miner. Having had a certain degree of newspa- 
per training at home, Hlav^Cek from the outset (he 
came to New York about 1 887) gave himself wholly 
to journalism. With several friends he set up in New 
York in 1893 the Delnicke Listy, the publisher of 
which was nominally the International Working- 
men's Union. By common consent the Delnicke Listy 
was regarded as the organ of revolutionary social- 
ists. For want of support the paper was forced to 
give up its existence in New York. It was removed 
to Cleveland, where, under the editorship of V. 
Kudlata, it finally went under. Disillusioned, 
HlavAcek quit New York and went to Chicago. 
There he returned to his old allegiance — social 
democracy. With the downfall of the Delnicke Listy 
the radical wing of social democrats, the party of 
action in New York, lost its greatest support. 



Thereafter the decline of this faction in New York 
was rapid and its ultimate break-up inevitable. 
Among other small things, Hlavicek published a 
collection of workingmen's songs in Cech, The Torch 
(214 pages) and a rhymed narrative of the Crea- 
tion, "accurately according to the version of the 
Bible." Though Hlav46ek is not above the average 
rhymester in skill, one cannot but concede, reading 
his humorous tale of the Creation, that he possessed 
a certain store of robust humor. Zdrubek tried to 
tell much the same story in verse, but his Bible to 
Laugh is incomparably inferior to Hlav&cek's. 

Edward Mily, a typesetter, was expelled from 
Bohemia and later from Vienna as a political unde- 
sirable. He went to Budapest, removing in 1884 to 
London. Later he came to New York. Mily did 
effective work on the Volne Listy (Free News),^ and 
translated, besides, several pamphlets. 

The youngest refugee was William Krouzilka, a 
student from Prague. A ready debater and a clever 
newspaper reporter, Krouzilka, despite his youth, 
rose quickly to prominence in the party. In Chicago, 
whither he went from New York, he published cred- 
itable pamphlets, one of which was a Life of Dar- 
win. He died in Chicago a few years ago. 

Vdclav Kudlata, said to have been a student of 
theology in Bohemia, delivered in 1897 a lecture 
"on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the 

* The Volne Listy originated in 1890 in Brooklyn. Suspended in 
the first months of the war. 


death of the Chicago Martyrs," which was that year 
printed in pamphlet form under the heading After 
Ten Years, Another brochure by Kudlata is en- 
titled, Half-hearted and Whole Liberalism (1897). 
Kudlata died in 191 7, at Elizabeth, New Jersey. 

None of the reformers had a more enthusiastic 
following in the debating clubs than Gustav Haber- 
man. During his second stay in the United States, in 
the early nineties, Haberman helped to father the 
radical Volne Listy in New York. "Later I dis- 
sented from the extreme policy of this paper," we 
read in his memoirs.^ Returning to Bohemia, Haber- 
man rose to a commanding position in the working- 
men's councils and he was elected on the socialistic 
ticket to the old Austrian Parliament. 

Of Frank Choura (a miner living in a small town 
in Pennsylvania) Dr. Soukup has this to say: "He 
was a witness and a participant in the Pa^es drama. 
After the arrest of Pa2es, Rampas and Christopher 
Cerny, he (Choura) fled to America. On this man 
rested the terrible suspicion of having informed on 
his comrades. The events of the last few years have, 
however, fully exonerated Choura.". 

Because he had a guilty knowledge of the exist- 
ence of PaCes's unlicensed printing shop and had 
omitted to inform the police, Frank Janota, a tailor, 
became, in the eyes of the law, Pa^es's accomplice 
after the fact. Janota saved himself from arrest by 

* Gustav Haberman: Z meho Zivota (From my Life). 253 pp. 
Prague, 19 14. 


a hurried flight to Switzerland. From the Swiss Re- 
public he went to London, and there published 
sheets which he called Pomsta (Revenge) and Revo- 
luce (Revolution) . Reaching New York some time in 
1894, he became associated with the Volne Listy, 
remaining at the head of this paper for about five 
years. Janota signed his articles with the pseudo- 
nym "Rebel." 

In the little cemetery at Neligh, Nebraska, lies 
buried a martyr-workman whose tragic life-story, 
because true, is more gripping than that of Jean 
Valjean, in Les Miserables. Whereas in Hugo's mas- 
terpiece the villain was the sergeant Thenardier, in 
the case of Joseph Paces, the Cech Jean Valjean, it 
was the State, as typified by secret police, which 
played the villain's role. 

Joseph Paces was a simple workman, whom social 
and national wrongs had made a rebel — rebel 
against society and state. Jean Valjean stole a loaf 
of bread and for this was sent to the galleys; Paces 
did not steal, cheat, or rob. He was a political crim- 
inal, though a desperate one, according to the view- 
point of the Austrian police. What crimes did Paces 
commit? First, he set up a secret printing press in 
northern Bohemia to further the propaganda of 
social democracy. Because he did this without a 
license from the authorities (who, of course, would 
not have granted it), he violated certain strict police 
regulations. Then he was guilty of lese majeste. The 
Government prosecutor charged him with treason, 





besides. When in prison, Pa2es in a moment of 
desperation attacked a brutal jail-keeper with a 
knife; this constituted a new crime: assault with 
intent to kill. 

On the occasion of his discharge from prison 
(altogether PaCes had given eighteen years of his 
life to the cause of social democracy), his comrades 
in Prague arranged a reception in his honor. "Here 
we saw him for the first time," writes Dr. Francis 
Soukup.^ "A bent, pale-faced man, looking as if he 
had just arisen from the grave. With face seamed, 
a haunted look, proud flesh around one eye. Hands 
trembling as if palsied, knees wabbly. Eighteen 
years spent in an Austrian prison at hard labor had 
left its marks on this living skeleton. ..." Dr. 
Soukup visited PaSes's grave at Neligh. " Here Pa6es 
came to find his resting-place. . . . On these vast 
plains, in the heart of America, far from the people 
who had taken away from him all he had, wife, chil- 
dren, youth, health, life. . . . Such had been his life, 
such is his grave; great as a man, greater still as the 
martyr of the Cech proletariat. ..." 

Anarchism among the American Cechs is dead. 
The Haymarket event dealt it a knock-out blow 
from which it never recovered. The older generation 
of immigrants, who had the opportunity to note at 
close range its corrosive tendencies and the vicious 
methods employed by its votaries, recall it as a 

* Dr. Francis Soukup: America; a Series of Pictures from American 
Life. Prague, 1912. 


hideous vision. Both the leaders and the followers 
are anxious to forget the past. 

The socialists have four newspapers to further 
their cause, namely, the Spravedlnost (Justice) and 
the Zdjmy Lidu (Interests of the People) in Chi- 
cago, the Americke Delnicke Listy (American Work- 
ingmen's News) in Cleveland, and the Obrana 
(Defense) in New York. 



IN the Civil War the Cechs provided the United 
States Army with more musicians than generals. 
At any rate, the historian is certain of the existence 
of the former, whereas a most thorough search of 
the register of officers from 1789, the year of the or- 
ganization of the Army, to 1903,^ failed to unearth 
a single general. The Poles presented to the strug- 
gling Republic two fighters of note, Kosciuszko and 
Pulaski. A number of Polish officers are known 
to have served in the Civil War. The name of 
V. Krzyzanowski, who held an independent com- 
mand, comes to mind. No Austro-Hungarian na- 
tion, however, has paid such generous tribute to 
Mars, the god of war, as the Magyars.'^ This is of 
course explained by the circumstance that many 
Magyar officers were living here in involuntary 
exile, following the suppression of the Hungarian 
Rebellion in 1849. Among the list of officers serving 
in the Union Army and claimed to be Magyar one 
notices such suspiciously un-Magyar names as 
John T. Fiala and Anton Pokorny. The last-named 

* Francis B. Heitmann: Historical Register and Dictionary of the 
U.S. Army, from its Organization, September 2g, lySg, to March 2, 
1903. Published under Act of Congress, March 2, 1903. Washington. 
Government Printing Office. 

' Eugene Piv4ny: Hungarians in the American Civil War. Cleve- 
land, 1913. 


was major of the Eighth and lieutenant-colonel of 
the Seventh New York Infantry. 

PridefuUy the Chicago Cechoslovaks point to 
the fact that their first club (i860) was a military 
organization styling itself the Slavonian Lincoln 
Rifle Company. Several of the Cech members hav- 
ing dropped out before the volunteers had been 
called into service, the club corrected its name to 
Lincoln Rifle Company. Geza Mihaloczy, according 
to one version a Slovak, but according to another 
(Pivdny), a Magyar, is remembered as its organi- 
zer. Whether Magyar or Slovak, Mihaloczy died 
a brave soldier's death on the battle-field. He lies 
buried at Chattanooga. Before the war he was quite 
a conspicuous figure in the Chicago circles. 

But two officers, in the Register and Dictionary 
have given Bohemia as their birthland : John Pilsen 
(seemingly an assumed name from the town of 
Pilsen), captain of a New York regiment of volun- 
teers, and John Rziha. Elsewhere, Rziha is referred 
to as John Laub de Laubenfels. The Slavie prints 
a communication dated March 19, 1862, from pri- 
vate J. Zajicek, stationed at Hunter's Chapel, Vir- 
ginia, in which occurs this passage: "In our regi- 
ment of volunteers, that is the 8th of New York, we 
have only a handful of Cechs, eight all told. The 
first in command of Company B. is F. Werther,^ by 

^ Frederick Werther owned a liquor saloon in New York, much 
patronized by Cechs. He took active interest in the social activities 
of his blood brothers. 



birth a Slovak, who is attached heart and soul to his 
ancient race." In another letter, also published in 
the Slavic, bearing the date December 5, 1862, the 
same soldier (ZajiCek) writes: "When the 28th Wis- 
consin Regiment passed through (Hunter's Chapel) 
we lined up by the roadside. We were surprised to 
hear that so many Cechs were enrolled in that 
regiment. Presently a comrade rushed to tell us 
the joyful news that he had recognized several 
friends in the 28th Regiment, with whom he had 
spent enjoyable days in Chicago and Milwaukee; 
Lieutenant Landa was there and with him no less 
than sixty Cechs." The Slavie that year was sending 
out about twenty copies to soldiers in the field. 
From this it would seem that there were not many 
soldiers in the camps; or that Cech fighters had 
been braver soldiers than newspaper subscribers. 
Just how many had shouldered the musket in de- 
fense of the Union, one cannot say, for the muster 
rolls did not tabulate the nationality of the private. 
The subjective and often more confusing than illu- 
minating reminiscences of Cech soldiers, which we 
find reprinted in Joseph Cermik's book,^ offer no 
basis even for an estimate, much less for accurate 
computation. A monument has been erected in the 
Bohemian National Cemetery in Chicago to com- 
memorate their participation in the great struggle. 
We have said that the Cechs had contributed 

* Joseph Cermik: The History of America. From various sources. 
Chicago, 1889. 


more musicians to the Army than generals. In cor- 
roboration of this we find in the local history of the 
Poles ^ this bit of interesting information: "A depu- 
tation of Poles headed by Officer Ludwig Zychlinski 
wished to pay the compliments of their people to 
President Lincoln, who was staying in camp not far 
from St. Louis. General Hooker undertook to intro- 
duce the delegation to Lincoln. The President asked 
how many Poles were serving in the army; and re- 
calling some of the Polish officers by name, Krzy- 
zanowski first of all, he praised their valor." On 
this occasion, relates Zychlinski, "a toast was 
drunk to the health and good luck of the Poles, and 
the musicians, among whom were Cechs and two 
Poles from Warsaw, played the anthem, 'Jeszcze 
Polska nie Zginela' (Poland has not yet perished) 
which moved all to tears." 

"So far as I could make out from the scanty ma- 
terial at my disposal no Cech in the Union Army 
wore a higher brevet than Adolph B. Chl^dek (born 
1838 in Vamberk, Bohemia, died 1887 in Chicago). 
He served with the Ninth Wisconsin Infantry, 
early receiving the commission of second lieuten- 
ant. At first he was attached to the staff of Gen- 
eral Scho field; later he served on that of General 

Cermdk believes that American Cechs sent a con- 

* History 0/ the Polish National Union, p. 23. Chicago, 1905. 
' Joseph Cermik : The History of America. Part III, The History 
of the Civil War. Chicago, 1889. 



siderable number of their sons to the ranks. Pre- 
cisely how many, he fails to state; his narrative 
accounts for these numbers serving in the Union 
Army: Iowa, 29 men ^ (p. 198); Wisconsin, 26 (p. 
181); Maryland, 19 (p. 182); Illinois, 13 (p. 78); 
Michigan, 10; and so forth. Cermkk leaves it to be 
inferred that, except a handful of conscripts in the 
Confederate Army from Texas and Louisiana (the 
only Southern States having Cech population), 
they were all fighting for the Union. 

John Wagner, a not over- veracious writer,' as- 
sumes that Captain Lesdegar Kinsky (conceivably 
a member of the aristocratic family of that name) 
was a Bohemian. Kinsky served in the war until 
1864 when wounds and sickness incapacitated him. 
He died in Boston in 1891. Another soldier of for- 
tune from Bohemia with a Civil War record was 
Count Edward C. Wratislaw, Lieutenant-colonel 
of the Forty-fifth New York Infantry.^ 

CenSk Paclt, a rolling stone and a globe-trotter, 
whose inextinguishable desire for adventure had 
led him to explore the ends of the earth, is the only 
soldier of Cech nationality serving in the Mexican 
War of whom we have any record. Having enlisted 

* B. Shimek: (e) The Bohemians in Johnson County, on pp. 6-7, 
gives the names of 57 Cechs serving in the 6th, 12th, 14th, 15th, 
22d, 46th, 47th Iowa Infantry and ist, 2d, 6th, 8th, and 9th Iowa 
Cavalry, in addition to 6 regulars. 

' John Wagner: Transatlantic Gossip. 41 pp. Prague, 1898. 

' F. B. Heitmann: Field Officers of Volunteers and Militia in the 
Service of the United States during the War of the Rebellion; 1861-65; 
p. 827. 


in the United States Army in 1846, Paclt claimed 
to have taken part in several of the battles that 
ended in the seizure, by General Winfield Scott, of 
Mexico City in 1847. Discharged from the Army in 
1853, this restless wanderer resumed his globe- 
trotting. He died in 1887 in Zululand.^ 

Hundreds of Cech volunteers and enlisted men 
shouldered the musket in the Spanish-American 
War, doing their duty honorably in Cuba, Porto 
Rico, and the Philippines. A comrade in arms, a 
United States regular, told their collective story. ^ 

In the war just ended Cechoslovak volunteers 
(at home they call them legionaries), fought the 
Central Powers under Russian, French, Italian, 
Serbian, Canadian, English and United States 

How many legionaries served in the armies of the 
Allies? Soon after his arrival from Russia President 
Masaryk in a speech delivered in Carnegie Hall, in 
the summer of 191 8, asserted that 50,000 Cechoslo- 
vaks in Siberia were under arms and that another 
60,000 were awaiting to be armed. 

The Cechoslovak unit in France numbered 
15,000 men. This was made up of volunteers from 
the United States and deserters and released pris- 
oners of war from the Russian and Serbian fronts. 

The contingent in Italy, composed wholly of de- 

^ Cenek Paclt's World Travels. By Dr. Jaroslav Svoboda. Mladi 
Boleslav, 1888. 

' Matthew Ma§ek : The Spanish-American War of i8q8. Illustrated. 
48 pp. August Geringcr. Chicago. 1899. 



serters from the Austro-Hungarian Armies, was 
mentioned in the dispatches as having over 20,000 

Some 1000 took part in the operations on the 
Balkan fronts. 

A writer who has made a close study of published 
reports computes the strength of volunteers and 
enlisted men in the United States at 100,000. In the 
opinion of the same writer the loss in man power 
on the Allied side was 34,000. By far the heaviest 
losses were sustained in the Russian campaigns and 
in the terrible march with the Serbian Army across 

Putting the estimate of the losses in the Austro- 
Hungarian Armies at 220,000, we obtain a total of 
254,000 men killed.^ 

A popular legend in Bohemia says that the 
knights slumbering in the cave of the Blanik Moun- 
tain would awaken and with St. Vdclav leading 
them would fall upon the enemy at the hour of the 
Fatherland's direst peril and would confound and 
destroy him. 

The knights of the legend did awaken and they 
did come out of the Blanik Mountain at the time 
the Fatherland was in supreme peril. That was in 
July, 1914. The knights were the legionaries who 
gave their lives to the end that democracy might 
triumph and that their native land might be freed 
from the yoke of the Hapsburg oppressor. 

^ Otakar CharvAt: The Pokrok, July i6, 1919. 


On July 1 8, 1919, President Woodrow Wilson 
reviewed in Washington a detachment of invalided 
veterans returning home from Siberia. On this occa- 
sion the President addressed the following eulogy 
to "Major Vladimir Jirsa, officers, and men of the 
detachment of the Cechoslovak Army," which will 
always be read and treasured by Cechoslovak le- 

"It gives me great pleasure to have this oppor- 
tunity to review this detachment of your valiant 
army and to extend to you, its officers, and the 
brave men associated with you, a most cordial 
welcome. Though we have been far away, we have 
watched your actions, and have been moved by 
admiration of the services you have rendered under 
the most adverse circumstances. Having been sub- 
jected to an alien control, you were fired by a love 
of your former independence and for the institu- 
tions of your native land, and gallantly aligned 
yourselves with those who fought in opposition to 
all despotism and military autocracy. At the mo- 
ment when adversity came to the armies with 
which you were fighting, and when darkness and 
discouragement cast a shadow upon your cause, 
you declined to be daunted by circumstance and 
retained your gallant hope. Your steadfastness in 
purpose, your unshaking belief in high ideals, your 
valor of mind, of body and of heart evoked the 
admiration of the world. In the midst of a disorgan- 
ized people and subject to influence which worked 



for ruin, you constantly maintained order within 
your ranks, and by your example helped those with 
whom you came in contact to reestablish their lives. 
I cannot say too much in praise of the demeanor of 
your brave army in these trying circumstances. 
Future generations will happily record the influence 
for good which you were privileged to exercise upon 
a large part of the population of the world, and will 
accord you the place which you have so courageously 
won. There is perhaps nowhere recorded a more 
brilliant record than the withdrawal of your forces 
in opposition to the armies of Germany and Austria, 
through a population at first hostile, or the march 
of your armies for thousands of miles across the 
great stretches of Siberia, all the while keeping in 
mind the necessity for order and organization. 

" You are returning now to your native land, 
which is to-day, we all rejoice to say, again a free and 
independent country. May you contribute to her 
life that stamina which you so conspicuously mani- 
fested through all your trying experiences in Russia 
and Siberia, and may you keep in mind after your 
return, as you had kept in mind heretofore, that 
the laws of God, the laws of man, and the laws of 
nature require systematic order and cool counsel 
for their proper application and development, and 
for the welfare and happiness of the human race." 



AN American writer who examined the bibliog- 
raphy of Cech books, pamphlets, year-books, 
memorials, and newspapers published here since 
i860, expressed genuine astonishment at its bulk. 
Not knowing the language, however, he was unable 
to differentiate between original productions and 
publications which are mere reprints, translations, 
or adaptations. The truth is that original works 
catalogued are but few. The 'book output of the 
socialists, for instance, is made up of translations. 
Several of the most productive authors — to men- 
tion one, Zdrubek — were translators, not original 

Is it possible to create in America a distinctive 
German, or Swedish, or Cech literature? More in- 
tensively than any other race the Germans culti- 
vated letters in their national tongue in America; 
yet what really great writers have they produced 
since Peter Zenker's time? "The hopes of a German- 
American literature, entertained by some of the 
enthusiasts of 1832 and 1848, have never been real- 
ized," so answers this query Gustavus Ohlinger. 
"It would be difficult to find a German book," he 
continues, "which the Germans themselves would 
claim was entitled to even an humble place in liter- 


The first Cech Newspaper in the United States 



ature. Very few native-born German-Americans 
have become German writers of even average abil- 

Perhaps Swedish, Italian, or Cech authors may 
yet create a work of striking and enduring value, 
but in view of the absorbing force of Americanism 
one is certain that other than English-language lit- 
erature will not thrive here. 

Journalism preceded book literature.^ The first 
newspaper, Slowan Amerikdnsky , came out Janu- 
ary I, i860; the first publication in book form, of 
which we have authentic record, was issued in 
1865.'^ From the first the newspapers had the upper 
hand. To improve them the publishers spared 
neither time nor expense; book literature, unfor- 
tunately, remained an afterthought. Like Cinder- 
ella it was forced to mope in the corner, while the 
publisher spent all his spare cash to dress up the 
pampered daughter, the newspaper, in most at- 
tractive finery. Of course, one must reckon with the 
high-pressure life of the average American, who 
finds just time enough to read the daily paper. That 
book-publishing continued to be neglected was due, 

* th (F. K. Ringsmuth): "Cech Literature in America," 

Kvity Americki, September 29, 1886. 

' Pravda, etc., The Truth, or an open discussion o7 events and 
of progress in the nineteenth century, as viewed in the light of his- 
tory and from other sources, by Charles Proch^ka. Racine, 1865. A 
year before, that is in 1864, Charles Jon^ brought out a Spelling 
Book and First Reader for Cech Slavic Youth in America, and Anton 
Eisner, in St. Louis, a Reminder of the Fatherland. The two last- 
named publications, however, were reprints. 



largely, to a lack of a purchasing public. August 
Geringer in Chicago, John Rosick^ in Omaha, 
Anton Novdk in Milwaukee, and Charles Jon4§ 
in Racine published quite a number of books and 
might have published more if the public had shown 
more appreciation — in buying them, 

A New York bookseller, on being asked what 
class of people purchased Cech books, replied: 
"My best customers are clergymen and socialists. 
Old settlers seldom buy a book; their children 

Useful handbooks antedated belles-lettres. Dic- 
tionaries and interpreters were as indispensable to 
the immigrant as a plough is needful to the farmer or 
tools to the mechanic. Five years after the Ameri- 
can type foundries had cast type with Cech dia- 
critic marks, Charles Jonds compiled for the use 
of his countrymen a Bohemian-English Interpreter. 
By 1870 F. B. Zdrubek had gotten out an English 
Grammar. Both publications were woefully deficient 
textually and crude typographically. For that mat- 
ter, everything that came off the press in those 
days, whether a pamphlet or a newspaper, bore 
tell-tale marks of apprenticeship. 

In the winter of 1852-53 arrived in Boston, on 
the ship Amor, a small company of home-seekers, 
several of whom were destined to play a noted part 
in the history of Cech immigration. One of them 
was Frank Korizek (1820-99),^ stonemason and 

* Kvety Americke, August 18, 1886. Biography and portrait. 







odd-job man from Letovice, a provincial town in 
Moravia. At one time Korizek had been a turnkey 
in the chateau of Count K^lnoky. It hardly need be 
added that he was, in addition to all his varied 
accomplishments, a self-taught musician, who was 
glad to earn a florin or two at country dances and 

Korizek settled in Racine — Watertown was his 
objective — and earned the distinction of being the 
Nestor of Cech journalism. His daughter, Christina, 
married Charles Jon^S; the other daughter, Cecilia, 
was given in marriage to Vaclav Snajdr, a name in- 
separably linked with the evolution of the rational- 
ist movement. 

Another of the Amor's passengers was John 
B^rta (also called Letovsky, from Letovice, his 
birthplace), Korizek's fellow townsman and school- 
mate. Bdrta (1821-98, Iowa City), who had ren- 
dered invaluable help to Korizek, in his initial strug- 
gles with the Slowan Amerikdnsky, established in 
1869 at Iowa City a weekly bearing almost the same 
name as Korizek's journal. The paper founded by 
B^rta still continues to be issued in Cedar Rapids, 
whither it was removed from Iowa City. Its name 
is Slovan Americky {American Slav). 

Charles JonA§, in the biography ^ of Korizek, 
asserts that his father-in-law made up his mind to 
become a publisher after reading the life-story of 
Benjamin Franklin. The famous American philoso- 

* Jubilee issue of Slavic, November 4, 1885. 


pher started his career as a printer's apprentice; 
why could not Korizek begin the same way, even 
though he was a married man and father of a grow- 
ing family? In this resolve, Jon4§ tells us, Korizek 
was strengthened by the study of Charles Hav- 
licek's ^ editorials loaned to him by a friend. 

While it is conceivable that Korizek found an 
inspiration in the life-stories of Franklin and HavH- 
cek, and was eager to emulate, in his own humble 
way, the example of these great men, yet there is 
one essential fact which Jon4§ omitted in telling of 
Korizek's achievement, namely, that years before 
another fellow countryman in the United States 
had striven hard to establish here a newspaper in 
the Cech language. That man was Vojta N^prstek. 
In 1857 Ndprstek addressed a meeting of interested 
parties in St. Louis on the subject. He urged New 
Yorkers to help, and he is known to have corre- 
sponded with Chicagoans toward the same end. 
N^prstek even outlined the future policy of such a 
paper. It should be liberal and fearless, somewhat 
like Havlicek's Ndrodni Noviny. Ndprstek's return 
to Europe in 1857 alone prevented him from realiz- 
ing this pet project. Notwithstanding this clear and 
convincing evidence, we are asked by Jon^s to be- 

^ Charles Havlicek, or Charles Havli2ek Borovsk^p^ (from Bo- 
rovany, his birthplace), was a noted publicist, whose journal, 
Ndrodni Noviny (National Gazette) the Austrian Government sup- 
pressed as revolutionary. A volume of selected editorials was pub- 
lished ^nder the caption, The Spirit (the essence) of the Ndrodni 






lieve that his father-in-law derived all his resolve 
and drew all his inspiration from Franklin and Hav- 
liCek and none from Vojta Ndprstek, his near neigh- 
bor and contemporary (N^prstek lived in Milwau- 
kee, Korizek in Racine). Posterity will do justice to 
Vojta Ndprstek as the originator, the mental spon- 
sor, of the idea; Korizek will be remembered as the 
mechanic who consummated it. 

Korizek learned to set type in the shop of the 
National Demokrat, a German weekly in his home 
town, Racine. Hearing that stored behind the sa- 
cristy of a Milwaukee church was a hand printing 
press, the property of a priest, Korizek decided to 
buy it. The price of the press was $140. He had a 
few dollars laid aside, which he had earned as a 
musician, and, with loans and gifts from friends, he 
succeeded in raising $40. For the balance of the 
purchase price, that is 5^ 100, Korizek gave the priest 
a mortgage on his cottage. 

The first number of Korizek's weekly was dated 
January i, i860. It bore the name Slowan Ameri- 
kdnsky. The type was German, or "kurent" (cur- 
rent), as the old folks used to call German script. 
Twenty-four numbers of the paper Korizek edited 
and set up alone, with only such small outside help 
as Joseph Satran (tailor) and Vaclav Simonek 
(school-teacher) were able to render. In the day- 
time he worked in the printing shop; evenings 
he was kept busy reading and writing by candle- 
light, except when he was engaged to play, for 



music still assured the sole dependable means 
of a livelihood and he felt he must not neglect 

Korizek's Slowan Amerikdnsky was three or four 
weeks old, when the St. Louis Cechs launched forth 
another weekly, the Ndrodni Noviny (National 
Gazette). This paper was meant to be the first jour- 
nal published in America, but owing to the dilatori- 
ness of its promoters, it really was the second. The 
St. Louis paper was a joint-stock enterprise which 
had been in the making for upward of three or four 
years. In a way the Ndrodni Noviny was Niprstek's 
paper, inasmuch as its stockholders were following 
the plan previously laid out by him. By acting 
quickly, Korizek forestalled the St. Louisians by 
less than a month, reaping as publisher whatever 
advantage accrued from priority. 

Before long the Slowan Amerikdnsky and the 
Ndrodni Noviny felt keenly the adverse economic 
conditions incident to the Civil War, and friends 
having advised merger as the only means of saving 
both properties from bankruptcy, a meeting of 
representative men was arranged in Caledonia, 
Wisconsin, with the result that the rival concerns 
joined forces. The Slowan Amerikdnsky and the 
Ndrodni Noviny, title names and all, were thrown 
into the melting-pot out of which emerged on Octo- 
ber 30, 1 86 1, a weekly, that was christened the 

^ Slavic, November 4, 1885. KvUy Americke, September 18, 1886. 
Biography written by Charles Jon4S. 



Slavic. Racine prevailed over St. Louis as the home 
office of the new journal. 

Between January, i860, and the spring of 191 1, 
326 Cech journals had come into being, represent- 
ing every shade of public opinion.^ Socialists, anar- 
chists, Protestants, Catholics, agnostics, Republi- 
cans, Democrats have had their say in them. Of 
these 326 journals some 85 survive and to-day 
clamor to be heard. The Hlasatel (Herald) of 
Chicago claims a circulation of 25,000, if one 
is to take the advertising agent at his word. 
The Hospodaf" (Husbandman), an agricultural bi- 
monthly, with a home in Omaha, is said to be a reg- 
ular guest in 30,000 households. The year 1875 
witnessed the issuance in Chicago of the first daily, 
the Svornost; now four dailies serve the needs of 
readers in that busy Western metropolis alone. One 
champions the cause of the socialists, another pro- 
claims itself the organ of the Catholics, the tend- 
ency of the third is anti-clerical, the fourth seeks 
to be independent. Cleveland and New York sup- 
port two dailies each, Omaha one. 

"Published in the interest of the Cecho-Slavs 
in America" is a legend that is printed under the 
headlines of pretty nearly every journal, irrespec- 
tive of religious or political affiliation. Usually, if 
not always, the paper is being issued in the interest 
of one Cecho-Slav — namely, the publisher. 

* Thomas Capek: Padesdt Let ceskeho tisku v Americe (Fifty Years 
of Cech Letters in America), p. 185. New York, 191 1. 



To the dictates of the American political parties 
the Cechs responded readily and loyally. Demo- 
crats and Republicans were, of course, always rep- 
resented in the press. The old Prohibitionist party 
never made any conquest among them. The Slavie 
under Jonds's management was a stanch Demo- 
cratic partisan. The Pokrok Zdpadu, while John 
Rosicky owned and edited it, was a steadfast Re- 
publican adherent. A dyed-in-the-wool Republican 
among the veteran editors was John A. Oliverius, 
who was never happier than at election time when 
he could measure swords with Jonds in a newspaper 

He was a fortunate publisher, indeed, who owned 
a printing press. Generally the beginner had only 
sufficient funds to buy a modest stock of type, cases, 
galleys, and stones. The paper was set up in the 
shop, but sent out to an American or German press- 
room to be printed. It was only after a time that the 
publisher, if his venture proved successful, was able 
to buy a printing press, usually on the installment 
plan. Bruce's type foundry in New York was among 
the first in the country to yield to the demand for 
Cech type. To the great misery of typesetters, 
Bruce and later Spindler cast no other than lower 
and upper case type. Accented job type was sup- 
plied by the foundries at a much later date. Type- 
setters who knew the trade from the old country 
were few. Most, if not all, the printers were initi- 
ated into the mysteries of this craft in America. 


The Svomost, Chicago; The Hospod&f. Omaha; The Hlasatel, Chicago 


Every pioneer newspaperman, publisher, and edi- 
tor knew in detail the tricks of the business and 
could, in case of an emergency, such as a strike, not 
only edit, but set up and print his own paper. Long 
is the roster of editors who rose from the case to a 
seat in the editorial sanctum sanctorum. Proud was 
the publisher, jubilant the typesetters, apprecia- 
tive the readers, when the paper appeared dressed 
in brand-new type from Bruce's or Spindler's 
foundry. Every one on such an occasion had a word 
of praise for the publisher's spirit and enterprise. 
However, such events were exceedingly rare. Many 
papers, alas! never lived to wear a second suit of 
clothes. A Cleveland weekly, now happily defunct, 
will be remembered with a shudder for its battered 
type and general ragged looks. 

Editor! Journalist! A time was when the editor 
not only wrote for the people; he literally thought 
for them. His advice on matters relating to the 
affairs of the community never failed to command 
attention. Grumblers there were, of course, who dis- 
sented from the editor's views, but sooner or later 
the opposition was sure to fall victim to the mighty 
man's wrath. 

The editor was invariably picked out to umpire 
quarrels, many of which, by the way, were of his 
own making. He was chosen as orator to address 
meetings and conventions; played leading roles at 
amateur theatricals; taught the local Cech language 
school; helped to organize new lodges; was called 



upon to write funeral orations, political speeches, 
and banquet toasts. 

When Jonas was in the heyday of his power, his 
word in the Slavie was law and his decision admitted 
of no appeal. Now lawyers, doctors, teachers, mer- 
chants, and professional politicians help the editor 
to mould public opinion. 

In towns where there were two or more rival 
journals there were bound to be two or more con- 
tentious factions. The editor, in each case, was the 
fixed star around which the lesser lights circled. 

Stories of Indian life were as popular with the 
veteran reader as are the conventional detective 
thrillers of the present day. Without an exception 
every paper fed its patrons on them. The scribe who 
translated them into fustian Cech seemed to revel 
in them no less than the reader himself. The curious 
feature of it was that the border settler, who should 
have been the last person in the world to entertain 
romantic notions about the redskin, was most fond 
of stories of Indian adventure. Singularly enough, 
not one of the devotees of this trashy reading 
seemed to know enough to translate the wholesome 
tales of James Fenimore Cooper. Instead, they 
wasted their time on such worthless rubbish as the 
Dragon of Silver Lake, or the Old Backwoodsman, 
Hukah Jim, the Cruel Modoc, Wild Katie, or the 
Prairie Outlaw. If reproved, the editor excused his 
course by arguing that first you must teach people 
to be readers before you begin to educate their taste. 



The Russo-Turkish War (1877) and the occupa- 
tion by Austria-Hungary of Bosnia and Herzego- 
vina happily diverted the readers' attention from 
the redskin and the cowboy to the South Slavs. 
Promptly the Indian fell into disfavor, and the edi- 
tor, answering the call of Slavic blood, turned to 
the life of the Balkan Slavs and their age-long strug- 
gle against the Turkish master. Then it was that 
Prokop Chocholou§ek,^ a writer whose romantic 
tales from South-Slavic countries had enjoyed 
great popularity in Bohemia, came to his own. 
There was hardly a paper which did not, during the 
period of the Russo-Turkish War, lend generous 
space to Chocholousek's South-Slavic heroics. 

With the rise of modern Cech literature, novels 
by Alois Jirdsek, Karel Rais, Vdclav Hladik, and 
other writers of recognized ability, began to dom- 
inate more and more the columns reserved for fic- 
tion. It is no secret that Cech- American publishers 
are dependent for this sort of reading matter on the 
literary output of the mother country. Copyright 
laws have no terrors for the publisher or the editor, 
accustomed to literary pillage. When the book mar- 
ket abroad was poor, as it was thirty or forty years 
ago, the reader here was made to starve in a liter- 
ary sense. One can imagine what dearth of reading 
matter there was half a century ago when the St. 

^ Prokop Chocholou§ek (1819-64) was a writer who imitated 
Walter Scott. His stories, though lacking the finish and preparation 
of his favorite master, exercised a powerful spell over the reader, 
particularly of the younger set. 


Louis Fozor, a weekly circulating among the work- 
ing classes, was driven by dire need to reprint 
KlAcel's unpalatable Dohroveda. Of the old-time 
romances none were in greater demand by the pub- 
lishers than Herloszsohn's The Last Taborite, or 
Bohemia in the Fifteenth Century} We dare say that 
this historic novel will be found reprinted in every 
paper dating back to the seventies. 

Anti-clerical journals, the Pokrok, Dennice No- 
voveku, Svornost, and Sotek, maintained a special 
column in which the editor registered, or reviewed, 
each week, the transgressions of the clergy. Bitt- 
ner's "Clerical Peep Hole" in the Sotek made un- 
comfortable reading for the priest who happened to 
get into the focus of the "Peep Hole." 

Of sensational disclosures by nuns who had made 
their escape from convents, there were published 
several variants. Sister Lucy tells in the Svornost of 
her harrowing experiences in an English convent. 
Sister Agatha confesses her troubles to the Dennice 
Novoveku. Sister Therese bares the alleged secrets 
of her life, also in the Svornost. Zdrubek translated, 
for the Svornost, Chiniquy's Priest, Woman and Con- 
fessional. Exposures, confessions, revelations are 

* George Charles Reginald Herloszsohn, in Cech HerloS, was born 
in Prague in 1804; died in Germany in 1849. Although his stories 
were written by him in German, he betrayed his nativity in every 
historic novel. A passionate admirer of Bohemia's past, he liked to 
sketch the stern heroes of the Hussite Wars, when Bohemia hurled 
defiance at papal Europe. Though uncritical, his historic novels 
are still popular. 

. 176 


many; there is the Confession by Pope Alexander VI, 
by Altaroche; Priest's Victims, by J. E. Ball; the 
Secrets of the Spanish Inquisition, by M. V. Fereal; 
Hierarchy and Aristocracy, by F. Hassaurek. 

Discussing some of the commercial aspects of 
journalism Vdclav Snajdr, has this to say: ^ ". . . 
Two or three Cech houses established a reputation 
as steadfast and dependable advertisers. The firms 
of Severa (Cedar Rapids) and of Triner (Chicago) 
settled their bills promptly on the day and on the 
hour. The checks from firms like these made it pos- 
sible for many a newspaper to meet its expenses. 

"Forty-five years ago typesetters were paid 
twenty-five cents per thousand ems. Of course, 
much depended on the typesetter himself and on 
the locality where the paper was published. Girls 
who had been trained for the work by the publisher 
received less. 

"The wages of typesetters on the Dennice Novo- 
veku were $15, later $18, payment being made 
promptly on wage day. I would rather have left the 
shop empty-handed myself on Saturday, than not 
to have paid the employees. I know, however, that 
certain publishers treated their men scandalously 
in this respect. When daily papers began to gain a 
firm footing and Cech typographical unions had 
organized their men, the wages of typesetters rose 
so markedly that many a reporter gave up his job 

* Specially communicated in 1915 to the author by V&clav Snajdr, 
at present living in retirement in Cleveland. 



at the desk and took to typesetting. At the case the 
reporter felt he was more independent; the pub- 
Hsher did not require him to attend, in the interest 
of his paper, dances, amateur theatricals, concerts, 
meetings. Furthermore, as a typesetter, he was se- 
cure from the impertinence of petty demagogues, 
who made miserable the life of the editor. 

"The Slavic's high-water mark in the matter of 
subscribers was 4000. The highest figure reached 
by the Dennice Novoveku was 3000. Considering the 
paper's radical policy, this was considered as en- 
viably large. But in time a recession came. Pub- 
lishers started to manufacture 'patent inside' 
weeklies and bi-weeklies filled with material taken 
bodily from the dailies. Against these factory-made 
weeklies, as they might be called, the genuine week- 
lies could compete in everything save in the quan- 
tity of reading matter. 

" Except for occasional help, the Slavic never em- 
ployed a salaried associate editor. It was always a 
partnership, or a profit-sharing arrangement of one 
kind or other. Korizek and Bdrta had agreed to 
divide the profits; but as matters were there was 
nothing to divide. On the contrary, the paper would 
have been run at a loss but for extras earned by 
Korizek as a musician. After the merger of the 
Ndrodni Noviny and the Slowan Amerikdnsky, 
Mr^cek and B^rta were to have drawn a certain 
salary. This salary was not paid as agreed, for the 
simple reason that there were no available funds. 




MrdSek and Birta, as you know, went to Russia 
on a special mission. In Jon^S's and Korizek's time, 
the old system of profit-sharing was again put into 
practice and continued until 1868, when I bought 
out Korizek's share. After that Charles Jonds and 
I drew $50 a month each. The profits, if any, we 
divided at the end of the year. My salary as asso- 
ciate editor never exceeded $50 per month. About 
the same stipend was paid to J. V. Slddek who 
worked for the Slavie a few weeks. Joseph Jiri KrM 
received a compensation of $60 or $65 a month. I 
am not certain how much other publishers were 
paying, but my impression is that John A. Oliverius 
did not receive more on the Pozor than $45 or $50. 
Zdrubek began with $50. Joseph Pastor had a prom- 
ise of more on the Nova Doha of Chicago; however, 
the receipts were never such as to warrant the extra 
compensation. In those days $50 a month was gen- 
erally thought a fair honorarium. As to your in- 
quiry concerning circulation. Until 1865 readers 
were counted by the hundreds only. The Slavie 
probably had at that time 2000 subscribers. When 
I bought out Korizek in 1868 the circulation was 
2500; readers began to increase after the seventies. 
Advertisements were at first inserted not so much 
for revenue as to fill the space. In 1870 advertise- 
ments netted the Slavie $200. Later there was a 
steady accession of advertising matter. The best- 
paid advertisement was that of the North German 
Lloyd — $25 yearly. 



"What the Bdrtas doled out to Kldcel as editor 
of the Slovan Amerikdnsky, I do not know, but it 
could not have amounted to much, for the old pro- 
fessor never wearied complaining to his friends that 
he was in want and that his pay was beggarly. 

"After his return from Europe, where he had 
gone to report on the Franco- Prussian War, Jon4§ 
began publishing a small weekly, a sort of a supple- 
ment to the Slavie, which he named the Amerikdn. 
He was enough of a business man to see that the 
Slavie could not keep two editors busy, and he was 
anxious to earn an extra dollar from this new enter- 
prise. The typesetting on the supplement was done 
almost entirely by his wife Christine, who, like her 
younger sister, Celia, later my wife, had become 
a skilled typesetter. 

" Meantime Edward Rosewater,^ who had served 
for a time in the Civil War as a field telegraph oper- 
ator, issued in Omaha, besides his daily paper the 
Bee, a Cech weekly, the Pokrok Zdpadu. One of the 
contributors to the Pokrok Zdpadu was carpenter 
Vodicka. The sheet led a precarious existence, be- 
ing more of an advertising medium of land specula- 
tors than a purveyor of news. Obviously this state 
of things did not tend to raise the paper's reputa- 
tion among its readers. Seeing that the Cechs were 
beginning to settle in Nebraska in increasing num- 
bers, Rosewater decided to raise the standard of the 

^ Kvety Americke, September 28, 1887. Biography and portrait. 
Rosewater was born in 1841 and arrived in 1854. 



Pokrok Zdpadu, and he offered me, upon whose ad- 
vice I do not remember, the editorship, at a weekly 
salary of $25, in addition to giving me lodging in 
the printing shop. This salary Rosewater paid me 
regularly; and to show my gratitude, I toiled night 
and day, taking charge not only of the editorial 
columns, but of business correspondence as well. 
Advertisements were few, because Cech business 
men, other than saloon-keepers, grocers, bakers, 
and butchers, were but a handful. That publishers 
accepted advertisements at ridiculously low rates 
is true. Some papers were content to receive almost 
any price; again others were satisfied to be paid by 
the advertiser in kind — clothing and footwear for 
the printers, dress material for the women folks. 
The Dennice Novoveku in the initial years owed its 
existence to profitable advertisements which I so- 
licited personally in my off hours, after my editorial 
duties were done. Subscriptions from readers came 
in tardily and were inadequate to keep the paper 

As they have lived so they have died — in hon- 
orable poverty. Bittner, the greatest talent of them 
all, left his family in utter destitution. Janda, an- 
other gifted journalist, died pitifully poor. A chari- 
table relative drove the proverbial wolf away from 
Oliverius's door more than once. Kldcel was all but 
a public almoner living on the scant pittance of his 
admirers. The income from the newspaper drudg- 
ery barely sufficed to keep soul and body together. 



Palda repeatedly jeopardized his business interests 
by his unconquerable passion for journalistic work. 
In his memoirs Palda laments: " If times were hard 
in Cleveland they were intolerable in New York. 
The employees, to be sure, had to be paid promptly. 
We three publishers divided the income as follows: 
John V. Capek, being single and having supposedly 
smaller needs, drew five dollars weekly ; I received 
eight wherewith to support myself, wife and three 
children; Skarda and his wife kept the balance." 
Believing he was taking a final leave of the profes- 
sion Capek in the last number of the Cleveland 
Ndrodni Noviny (1873) says with ill-concealed bit- 
terness: " I throw away my pen with which I have 
wasted here three of the best years of my life." To 
Pastor, ambitious and clear-headed, the outlook 
appeared so dismal that he made haste to with- 
draw while still young and turn his energy to a 
more gainful employment. Zdrubek was one of the 
few favored ones who accumulated a competence. 
But Zdrubek's main revenue was derived, not from 
journalism, but from paid functions incident to 
his position as Speaker of the Liberal Union in 

No ordinary journalist was Frank Mrdcek ^ 
(born in Moravia in 1828, died, 1896, in Odessa, 
Russia), whom the publishers of the St. Louis Nd- 

^ John Boreck;^: Chapters on the History of ^ech- Moravians in 
America, p. 9. Cedar Rapids, 1896. The Pokrok Zdpadu, March 10, 



rodni Noviny called in i860, to edit that paper. His 
biographer said of him that he had been sentenced 
to serve a twenty-year term in the military prison 
at Kuf stein, in the Tyrol, for having taken an ac- 
tive part in political agitation in Prague. After the 
amnesty in 1857 Mr^Cek emigrated to the United 
States. In the first years of the Civil War, a farming 
element, discontented with conditions here, con- 
ceived the somewhat fantastic plan of migrating 
to Asiatic Russia. Mr^cek and B^rta Letovsk^ 
were chosen as envoys to go to the Czar's land, 
there to pick out a suitable region for the future 
New Bohemia. Happily, the contemplated emigra- 
tion to Russia never took place; so far as is known 
only one emigrant settled in Russia pursuant to the 
plan. That emigrant was Mr^Cek himself. To his 
countrymen in the United States Mrd^ek's leave- 
taking was a real loss, for he was a cultured gentle- 
man, a born leader and organizer. Mr^cek's widow, 
who is still living (or rather was living before the 
war) in Russia, draws a pension from the United 
States Government ; he served in the Army during 
the Civil War. 

Charles Jon^§ (1840-96), the "first Cech in 
America," as Carl Schurz was the "first German," 
came to the United States in 1863, as an under- 
graduate of the Polytechnic at Prague. To save 
himself from arrest for actively participating in the 
Cech national movement, Jon4§ had fled to Lon- 
don ; from that city friends invited him to come to 



Racine to take charge of the Slavic. When he as- 
sumed editorship of that paper he was but twenty- 
three years old, an alarmingly immature age for 
an editor. Yet Jones's youth was not without its 
compensations, for it enabled him to master more 
quickly the English language and to grow up, so to 
say, with the surroundings. Even before he came to 
America he had evinced a marked liking for public 
affairs, to which in the United States he could give 
free rein. 

In his student days he wrote a political pam- 
phlet in German wherein he sought to prove that 
a confederacy of free nations was the only solu- 
tion of the Austrian problem. His quick wit told 
him he must master the English language before he 
could aspire to leadership among his people here. 
At a time when others were still hesitating whether 
they should stay in America or emigrate to Amur, 
Jonds busied himself with English. Though a mere 
youth, he was sagacious enough to recognize the 
unwisdom of opening the columns of the Slavie to 
religious disputes. That the temptation to do so 
was strong is easily believable, for Jonas was a lib- 
eral through and through, and there was no mistake 
as to where his sympathies lay. Among his journal- 
istic colleagues he attained an exceptional position: 
friend and foe alike learned to look up to him as an 
authority, from whose decision but few had the 
courage to appeal. Such was the weight of his word 
that his views and his opinions on matters relat- 




ing to the national life of the Cechs in America 
were regarded as final; not perhaps that he was 
always right, but because it was Jon^§ who said 
it. About 1872 the Slavie ranged itself openly on 
the side of the Democratic Party, with the result 
that probably the majority of Cechs followed JondS 
willingly and embraced the creed thereof. His liter- 
ary work was entirely of the useful kind. Though 
he had been trained, as stated, for the career of a 
technicist, he plunged courageously into philology 
and lexicography. His initial volume was the Bo- 
hemian-English Interpreter, published in 1865.^ In 
1876 appeared the Bohemian-English and English- 
Bohemian dictionaries. The fact that these diction- 
aries have gone through sixteen editions, in each 
case amplified and improved, is the best testimony 
of their merit and usefulness. In 1884 followed 
the New American Interpreter; in 1890 Bohemian 
Made Easy. The American Law and Golden Book 
for Farmers are compilations. Other Cechs have 
achieved higher political honors than he; Jon4§ 
was state senator (1883), consul to Prague (1885), 
lieutenant-governor of Wisconsin (1890), consul to 
Petrograd (1894), consul to Crefeld (1894). Yet in 

^ Adolph William Straka, political exile living in London, preceded 
Jon4§ by three years with his English Grammar, published in Prague 
in 1862. This is the first book of its kind in the Cech language. Inas- 
much as Jon&S came to Racine from London and had associated in 
the English capital with Straka, the inference is that it was Straka's 
example which inspired Jon&§ to devote himself in America to the 
same line of literary work. 



the estimation of the old-timers, Jond§ was with- 
out a peer. He died at Crefeld, Germany,^ and was 
buried in Prague. His tombstone bears this inscrip- 
tion: "Charles Jond§, first United States Consul of 
Cech nationality, born October 30, 1840, died Janu- 
ary 15, 1896. I have one wish. Bury me in the loved 
Cech land, for which I have fervently longed and 
for which I have sacrificed all." ^ 

Journalism will not forget the name of Joseph 
Pastor, the fighting editor of the ultra-radical 
weekly Pokrok. Pastor was born in 1841, and af- 
ter graduation from a Latin school (gymnasium), 
being too poor to continue his studies in the uni- 
versity, he joined a religious order. He appeared 
in New York in 1866. There he earned a niggardly 
living at cigarmaking. Later he entered the service 
of the New York Staatszeitung as a stenographer. 

^ In order to set at rest the stories current as to the causeof JondS's 
death, the author addressed a letter of inquiry to the State Depart- 
ment. Here is the answer: 

Department of State, August 10, 191 8 
Mr. Thomas Capek. 

Dear Sir: In response to your inquiry of July 29th I regret to in- 
form you that the Department's records show that Mr. Charles 
Jon4§, American Consul at Crefeld, Germany, died of heart failure, 
January 15, 1896. 

Herbert C. Hengstler, 
Acting Chief, Consular Bureau 

* The Kvity Americke, July 15, 1885, autobiography and portrait; 
the Slavic, January 22, 1896, obituary by J. J. Krdl and portrait; the 
Svetozor, Prague, xxxii: 120-21, portrait of tombstone; the Slavic, 
May 31, 1912, eulogy by J. E. S. Vojan, on the occasion of the un- 
veiling of a monument to Jon^S in Racine. 



Pastor was a thorough German scholar. His letters 
from New York to the Slame attracted the atten- 
tion of Jon4§ and of Kofizek, who offered him the 
editorship of the Pokrok. While no one questioned 
Pastor's ability and sincerity, the more cultured 
element deplored his rough-and-tumble style of 
handling his adversaries. Father Joseph Molitor, of 
the Chicago Katolicke Noviny, was a particular suf- 
ferer at Pastor's hands. Wearied of the miseries of 
journalism, he removed to Hamburg, where he 
established himself as a steamship ticket agent. 
During his residence in Hamburg he issued in 1884 
a periodical, the Ceske Osady vAmerice (Cech Settle- 
ments in America), containing much useful statis- 
tical information. Pastor was a warm admirer of 
America and of its free institutions. 

The KvMy Americke (American Blossoms) ^ had 
this to say of Vaclav Snajdr, from 1877 to 191 1 the 
publisher and editor of the Dennice Novoveku: "He 
holds a notable rank in our national life, enjoying 
the esteem and confidence of the liberal element 
among Cechs in America. After the retirement of 
Jon^s from active journalism, Snajdr occupied 
without doubt a foremost place as a newspaper 
writer; as a poet he has not been equaled (among his 
countrymen here). Pity, though, that the exhaust- 
ing work of journalism has stifled in him the poet." 

* The Kvety Americke, August 17, 1887. Biography and portrait; 
Thomas Capek: Fifiy Years of Cech Letters in America, pp. 120-21, 
autobiographical note. 



Snajdr, who was born in 1847, came to the United 
States the same year as did Klacel. Preparatory to 
his taking charge of the Dennice Novov^ku, which he 
founded in 1877, he received journaHstic training 
on the Slavie, Pokrok Zdpadu, and Pokrok. Several 
of his compilations — his favorite author appears 
to have been Ingersoll — were published in pam- 
phlet form. The estimate of Snajdr by the Kvety 
Americke is correct in the main, except for the asser- 
tion that he ranked next to Jonas as a journalist. 
The truth is that disciplined readers appraised 
Snajdr as the abler newspaperman of the two. This 
estimate of Snajdr's abilities was sustained as Jo- 
n4§, in later years, began to neglect journalism for 
the more exciting, though not profitable, game of 
politics. Snajdr was always frank, at times dis- 
agreeably so. Jonas as an aspiring politician was 
necessarily wary, diplomatic. Except for a few 
pamphlets, all Snajdr's literary production is stored 
in the Dennice Novoveku, and the thought is a 
mournful one — a tragic feature of the journalism 
of a small nation — that a man's life effort should 
be bound up in the archives of a newspaper of 
which there exists but one copy, the copy which is 
called the editorial file. 

An original personality among the old standard- 
bearers was John Borecky (1828-1908).^ Though 
he received no more than a village school education 

^ The KvBy Americke, November 10, 1886; St. LouisH Listy, 
January, 1909. 



and notwithstanding the fact that he was a stranger 
to the mysteries of Cech orthography, to quote a 
journaHstic opponent, Borecky was capable of writ- 
ing thoughtful, and if the subject-matter related 
to the doings of pioneers, exceedingly informative, 
articles. Aggressive to rashness, Borecky was un- 
afraid even of Klacel, if he believed himself in the 
right. In newspaper disputes he had no hesitancy in 
attacking Snajdr, Zdrubek and Palda. His great gift 
was his remarkable memory which, even in his ex- 
treme old age — he died at Little Rock, Arkansas, 
in his eightieth year — served him unerringly. If a 
controversy arose over the details of some long-for- 
gotten event, all that was needed was to knock at 
the door of old man Borecky and he promptly sup- 
plied the missing facts. His scrap-book was deadly 
and men with shady pasts felt uneasy when Borecky 
became reminiscent. It was he who silenced Hynek 
Slddek,^ a poor newspaper scribe; it was he who 
made J. B. Erben, the first editor of the St. Louis 
Ndrodni Noviny and the intimate of his youth, dis- 
gusted with journalism.^ In addition to articles 

* For details from Slddek's life, see article, "One of the Pioneer 
Cech editors," the Kvity Atnericke, Omaha, July lo, 1902; another 
account, the Kv^ty Americke, November 10, 1886. Hynek S14dek 
should not be confounded with J. V. Slidek, the poet. 

* J. B. Erben was born in 1837, and according to latest advices, 
lives with his daughter in retirement in St. Louis. His past has been 
the subject of heated controversies, in which Borecky, his chief de- 
tractor, invariably led the opposition. Osvlta Americkd, January 16, 
1907, and Borecky 's letter, dated March 15, 1907, published in the 
St. LouisH Listy. 



scattered in various newspapers, he wrote a brief 
treatise, Kapitoly (Chapters on the History of 
Cech-Moravians in America). Only that part of the 
tract which contains the personal reminiscences of 
the author is of value; the rest, in which Borecky 
debates with the protagonists of liberalism, is 
rambling. Following a newspaper quarrel, Borecky 
left the liberal party and joined, in theory at least, 
the socialists. He came to the United States as a 
journeyman tailor and resided alternately in Mil- 
waukee, St. Louis, Chicago, and Little Rock. 

John A. Oliverius (i 843-1904) was not nick- 
named "newspaper grave-digger" without reason. 
His name is associated with sixteen papers on which 
he had been active as editor or in which he was in- 
terested as publisher. Not one newspaperman could 
boast of such a record. Oliverius's head was ever 
afire with lofty ideals and far-reaching plans, the 
latter invariably aiming to save from racial extinc- 
tion his countrymen in America. Among other 
things he advocated the founding of a New Bo- 
hemia, preferably in Oregon, where it would be 
protected on one side by the sea. Charles Jon^s, his 
political adversary — Oliverius championed the 
Republican Party while Jonas was a Democratic 
partisan — was wont to call him a visionary and a 
fool; yet Oliverius was far from a fool. On the con- 
trary, he was, on occasions, a shrewd judge of men, 
far-sighted, almost prophetic in some of his conclu- 
sions. In a newspaper nieUe, it is true, he often lost 



all sense of proportion. Despite his long residence 
in America (Chicago), he never learned the art of 
making money, a circumstance all the more remark- 
able, since he had been trained in his youth for a 
merchant's career. But for the charitableness of a 
relative abroad he would have suffered what Kl^cel 
bitterly termed, vulgar want. His nickname, "news- 
paper grave-digger," was not wholly undeserved, 
yet it was Oliverius's cash and his alone, which 
went to pay for all the newspaper graves that he 
dug. In 1890 he published in pamphlet form a lec- 
ture on the Cultural Meaning of the Queen's Court 
and Green Hill MSS. (144 pp.). In view of the fact 
that both of these manuscripts were proved to be 
spurious, the treatise has but an antiquarian inter- 
est. Not even his opponents questioned his probity 
or his rugged patriotism. "Oliverius was impracti- 
cable," "Oliverius was an idealistic visionary," was 
the worst they could say of him. He died in poverty 
and is buried in Prague. 

Ladimir Kldcel ^ created nothing in America of 
enduring value. Driven by dire need to seek a liv- 
ing in unprofitable and unappreciated newspaper 
work, again and again changing his residence, — he 

* The Kvety Americke, September 15, 1885, biography and por- 
trait; Vdclav Snajdr: Ladimir (Francis) Kldcel: His Life and Teach- 
ing. 49 pp. Cleveland, 1908; same, the Dennice Novovtku, April 9, 
1908. The monument above his grave in Belle Plaine bears inscrip- 
tions in Cech, English, and Latin. The English text is: "Professor 
Ladimir Klicel, the Cech Patriot, Philosopher and Freethinker, 
born at Ceskd, 1 ?ebov4, April 7th, 1803. Died at Belle Plaine, March 
17th, 1882. Erected by his grateful countrymen." 



lived successively in Iowa City, Chicago, Coopers- 
town, Kossuthtown, Keewaunee, Krok, Milwau- 
kee, Belle Plaine, — Kldcel lacked that repose of 
mind and sense of security which, if not indispens- 
able, are yet conducive to scholarly pursuits. 

Snajdr, who visited Kldcel in his flat in Chicago, 
thus describes the plight of the hapless philosopher: 
"He occupied one room partitioned off by a screen; 
the front part was used as a kitchen and sleeping- 
place by the housekeeper, Mrs. Moll. In the other 
lived Kldcel surrounded by his books. Dejection 
and poverty were reflected in his sorrowing eyes. 
' We subsist on bread and milk and at times we lack 
even that; besides, my clothes are falling apart,' he 
complained, pointing to a black alpaca coat, such 
as the clergy wear. Neither I nor my companion 
could repress our emotions. I shall not forget this 

A fellow countryman found Klicel weeping on 
the steps of a country church in Wisconsin, in 
which, in his utter destitution, he was compelled, as 
a means of earning a scant pittance, to conduct 
services to a motley congregation. What poignant 
suffering it must have caused him to again put on 
priest's vestments and repeat before the altar the 
ceremony which he had often ridiculed. 

To a friend he wrote that he wished to publish in 
America a newspaper "serving the needs of a cul- 
tured people, who strive after truth, righteousness, 
love. Yet, what do I find? Every lofty ideal meets 


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with derision. Nevertheless I persist and try to 
please the minority, at least, hoping that in the end 
victory may be our reward. But it is disheartening 
to have to struggle with vulgar want." And this 
in a communication to an admirer: "How deeply 
grieved I am that they [the B^rtas] should treat me 
as if I were a day laborer, from whom they accept 
what suits them, paying me what they please for 
services rendered. All too readily do they forget 
that the 1500 subscribers [of the Slovan Amerikdn- 
sky] are due to my endeavor." 

"Kldcel's American writings," comments Anton 
Novik of Milwaukee, "were printed in editions at 
no time exceeding 500; of this number about one 
half was sold, the remaining half was knocked about 
on the shelves for years until I gave the stuff away 
or threw it out on the rubbish heap, in order to gain 
shelf -space for other books. It was very poor busi- 
ness; there were issues that did not bring in enough 
to pay the cost of the print paper. The Vecny Kal- 
enddr (Perpetual Calendar) had about 150 sub- 
scribers; the Historie Spojenych Statu Americkych 
(History of the United States) barely 100. That 
under such circumstances I could not go on with 
other of Kl^cel's publications is self-evident." 

One cannot speak of Kldcel as a journalist. Judg- 
ing his work in the retrospect, we get the picture of 
a sorrowing old man, captivated by dogmas; one 
who had no adequate conception of the realities of 
American life. Is it to be wondered that readers 



grumbled that "Kldcel wrote too learnedly"? In 
the Hlas Jednoty spoke not an American journalist, 
whose function is to record the events of the day, 
but an old-fashioned schoolmaster. 

Among self-made men, who, to use a homely but 
an expressive phrase, pulled themselves up by 
their boot-straps, the best known was L. J. Palda 
( 1 847-1 91 2). An eloquent speaker, an independent 
thinker, a gifted journalist, an indefatigable organ- 
izer, Palda might have risen high, had he been able 
to tear himself away from the diminutive world to 
which his birth had chained him, but which he 
adored above all else. He had many of the faults and 
virtues of the great men, of the Mirabeaus, Gam- 
bettas, Cavours, and Riegers of history. His life 
gave every evidence of his strong personality. He 
organizes workingmen, advocates socialism — he 
is rightfully called the father of Cech socialism — by 
appealing speeches tries to sustain, when and wher- 
ever called, the waning courage of strikers, drudges 
as editor and as pamphleteer. It is hard to decide 
which of his achievements deserve higher praise. 
Is it his work as a publicist? Or his efforts as an Or- 
ganizer of labor? Even his enemies — and Palda had 
plenty of them (he was vainglorious, they said) — 
will not gainsay his splendid gift of eloquence. So- 
cialists will not detract from his merits, though the 
more radical element repudiated him, at one time, 
as a reactionary. An idealist and humanist despite 
unending disappointments, Palda wrote, in 1902, a 



remarkable booklet, which he entitled Myslenky o 
novem ndbozenstvi (Thoughts on New Religion). In 
it the thinking man sets out to analyze his creed; 
not satisfied with evasion he demands solution of 
the perplexing problem of religion. He arrives at the 
conclusion that mere non-belief, negativity, is not 
enough. "I yearned by this exposition of my faith 
partly to ease my troubled mind, partly, if possible, 
to assist in the approaching regeneration of our lib- 
eral party. I see this possible only in a new religion, 
which shall embrace all our desires, all our ideals, 
our teachings, our views. ... I realized more and 
more that mere negativity, renunciation of the be- 
liefs, w411 not suffice to fill a spiritual void." Palda's 
New Religion, however, pleased neither the ortho- 
dox among the rationalists nor the old-fashioned 
believers. The latter challenged the author through 
the person of Father Tichy of Minnesota,^ who was 
of the opinion that there was no need to go in search 
of new creeds. All that was necessary was an abid- 
ing constancy in the old, the true faith. As for the 
rationalists, they passed a scathing resolution in 
which they, metaphorically speaking, ejected Palda 
from their ranks as an apostate and undesirable. 
Palda's last years were spent in Cedar Rapids, 
where he operated a cigar factory on a small scale. 
By trade he was not a cigarmaker; he came to the 
United States in 1867 as a journeyman weaver. 
Journalism always attracted him and he yielded to 
^ Odpoved" Paldovi (A Reply to Palda). 1906. A pamphlet of 88 pp. 


its allurements, though his business often suffered in 
consequence. He received but little more than a 
common school education; yet those who had the 
good fortune of knowing him intimately agreed 
that he was not only an amiable companion, but a 
cultured man. A well-stocked library was his only 
college. As a journalist he towered far above Zdru- 
bek and as a student he outranked Jonas, who had 
more of a practical than contemplative mind. His 
tragic death occurred in Cedar Rapids in 1912.^ 

Frank Boleslav Zdrubek was born in 1842 of a 
poor family. He was sent to a Catholic theological 
seminary to be educated for the priesthood. Hav- 
ing, as he says, experienced a change in religious 
faith, Zdrubek left the Catholic for a Protestant 
seminary, from which latter he graduated. Emi- 
grating before the seventies to the United States, 
he took charge, at Caledonia, Wisconsin, and at 
Wesley, Texas, of evangelical congregations of 
Cech-Moravian Brethren. But his career as a min- 
ister of the gospel was of brief duration. The par- 
ishioners complained that their pastor was too radi- 
cal in his views; the pastor again was dissatisfied 
because his flock was not progressive enough. 
When Joseph Pastor resigned from the anti-cleri- 
cal weekly Pokrok, Zdrubek gave up the pulpit, 
removed to Chicago, and "notwithstanding his 

^ The Kvety Americke, August 15, 1885, autobiography and por- 
trait; Dr. F. Soukup: article in Prague Prdvo Lidu, reprinted in Hlas 
Lidu, July 10, 1913; article in Prague Cas, reprinted in Hlas Lidu, 
July 8, 1913. 




retiring disposition and his aversion to public life,'* 
accepted the post of editor of that paper. "He did 
this all the more readily, as he felt that as a minister 
of the gospel he could not make an honorable living 
unless he chose to make of his vocation a vulgar 
traffic and practice from the pulpit pious extor- 
tion." ' 

Zdrubek was an iconoclast who believed in no 
miracles save those which science performed. 
Though a pulpiteer of considerable experience, it 
could not be said of him that he was an orator. 
As a journalist he was distinctly commonplace. 
Most prolific of all the Cech literati, he was, in fact, 
not a creative writer, but a translator. Yet in the 
end Zdrubek managed to raise himself to the fore- 
most place among his countrymen and the liberals 
bowed to him as their chief. What was the secret of 
his success? Zdrubek was a man who triumphed not 
by reason of genius, for he was not above medioc- 
rity, but rather because all his life he had been a 
hard, conscientious worker, a man of unblemished 
reputation. The liberal ideas which he imbibed 
from Voltaire, Paine, Ingersoll, Kl^cel, and other 
thinkers, he espoused with a zeal, which no one 
would have suspected in this meek and humble ex- 
pastor. His life-work proceeded along two dissimi- 
lar lines: like Jon^s he compiled dictionaries and 
grammars. At the same time he combated, orally 
and in writing, clericalism in all its forms. The 
' The Kvtly Americke, June 23, 1886, autobiography. 


English Grammar came out in 1870. Then followed 
successively, How to Pronounce in English, Cech 
English Interpreter, Pocket Dictionary of the English 
and Cech Languages, and a grammar or two for 
Cech elementary schools. His translations from 
English and German include: Das Lehen Jesu, by 
David Friedrich Strauss (1883) ; The Age of Reason, 
by Thomas Paine (1884); Die Konventionellen Lil- 
gen der Kulturmenschheit, by Max Nordau (1885); 
Kraft und Staff, by Ludwig Buechner (1889). 
Then there are the Sermons, delivered on various 
occasions, but chiefly as a Speaker of the Liberal 
Union in Chicago between 1879 and 1894. His 
rhymed Comic Bible (1885) is maladroit. In 1877 
he took part in a public disputation with Father V. 
Coka, a Chicago priest. Zdrubek's contribution to 
this debate was printed under the title, Two Reli- 
gious Disputations, etc. Jointly with August Ger- 
inger he founded, in 1875, the Chicago Svornost, 
remaining uninterruptedly at its head up to his 
death in Chicago in 191 1. An adversary thus epit- 
omized Zdrubek's life-work: "With tireless en- 
ergy worthy of a better cause, he propagated the 
teaching of infidelity, and he admired greatly 
the doctrines of that American agnostic, Robert 

The roster of pioneers would be incomplete with- 
out the name of John Rosicky of Omaha. ^ A self- 

^ A Souvenir, published in memory of John Rosick^, American 
Cech journalist and patriot. 90 pp. Omaha, 1910. 





made man, Rosicky came to be recognized as one 
of the forceful members of the journaHstic profes- 
sion. In 1 87 1 he took over from Edward Rosewater 
the weekly Pokrok Zdpadu (Progress of the West), 
then a small sheet, without influence and without 
readers. In time Rosicky raised the Pokrok Zdpadu 
to the front of Cech weeklies. That his tastes were 
higher than mere commercial journalism, he proved 
in 1884, when he set up the Kvety Americke, the 
first genuine attempt at a Cech literary periodical. 
Bravely the Kvety Americke strove to live up to the 
programme outlined in the prospectus of the pub- 
lisher. But the most ambitious plans of a publisher 
are doomed to miscarry if the reading community 
fails adequately to support him. Tiring of the re- 
current deficits, Rosicky was forced to modify his 
original plan with the Kvety Americke. Out of the 
compromise emerged, in 1903, a publication called 
the Osveta Americkd (American Culture), half com- 
mercial, half literary. By far the most profitable of 
Rosicky's ventures proved to be an agricultural 
paper, the Hospoddr (Husbandman). This publica- 
tion now claims a larger circulation than any other 
agricultural paper printed in the Cech language. 
Rosicky was a newspaper man and not an author. 
Only one brief booklet — businesslike and to the 
point — bears his name, Jakje v Americe ? (America 
as it is), compiled "for the guidance of newly ar- 
rived compatriots in America." A man of compel- 
ling individuality, he rendered helpful service to 



settlers west of the Missouri River. He was born in 
1845, came with his parents to America in 1861, 
and died in Omaha in 1910. 

John V. Capek was a humorist whom no Cech 
writer in America has yet equaled. His homely hu- 
mor was of that rustic grain — Capek was peasant 
born — which, like a happy after-dinner speech, 
provokes both good feeling and mirth. His ready 
pen turned out droll rhymes with the same aston- 
ishing ease and neatness with which a magician 
pulls things out of his hat. The comic Life of St. 
Anthony of Padua (New York, 1883) in verse is 
fairly indicative of Capek' s skill in this respect. 
The life of the Italian saint, by the way, is not a 
translation of Wilhelm Busch's Der Heilige St. An- 
tonius von Padua. Only the illustrations are bor- 
rowed from that German writer-artist. The text is 
original. Capek's humorous weekly, the Dihlik 
(Puck), will long be remembered by discriminating 
lovers of clean, sparkling humor. As a journalist 
and writer of fiction, he was thought of highly by 
contemporaries, and would have added consider- 
ably to Cech letters here, since he was a man of fine 
culture and broad views, had not experiments in 
electricity lured him away from literature. He was 
born in Bohemia, in 1842, studied in the Univer- 
sity of Prague, and came to America in 1871 in 
answer to a call from the publishers of the Cleve- 
land Pokrok. He died in New York in 1909. 

F. K. Ringsmuth possessed more than a versi- 




fier's adroitness at turning out rhymes. He, too, had 
in him the material of which genuine poets are 
made. Marital troubles were accountable for Rings- 
muth's complete desertion of literature. Pecksnif- 
fian colleagues called him a turncoat; in a sense, 
Ringsmuth was a turncoat. From a social democrat 
and a rationalist, which he was in his younger years, 
he turned for consolation to the Scriptures, be- 
coming first a missionary, later a Protestant min- 
ister. The Kytice Bdsni (Bouquet of Poems, New 
York, 1882) discloses a man of decided poetic 

Josephine Humpal-Zeman (i 870-1 906), a news- 
paper writer, and advocate of woman's suffrage, 
was the very opposite of Frances Gregor. An un- 
fortunate marriage forced her to earn her own liv- 
ing. Incidentally, marital experiences lent a sharper 
angle to her estimate of the new woman. Mrs, 
Zeman first obtained entrance into American circles 
through the good offices of certain women inter- 
ested in a Chicago settlement house. One of these, 
Mary Ingersoll, Mrs. Zeman called, in a book dedi- 
cation, "My second mother." Presumably due to 
the generosity of this woman, Mrs. Zeman was sent 
to a seminary. From the seminary she brought 
home two very valuable assets: first, a fair com- 
mand of the English language, and secondly, a 
broader general knowledge. Later in life, when she 
put herself at the head of the woman suffrage move- 
ment, she was enabled to make excellent use of 



these acquirements. With other women she founded 
in Chicago, in 1894, a weekly paper, the Zenske 
Listy (Woman's Gazette). Aside from journaHsm 
she was active as a lecturer, speaking to audiences 
in English or in her mother tongue, as circumstances 
required. She was the pioneer in this work. Un- 
gallantly, Bartos Bittner was wont to chaff her in 
the Sotek with the sobriquet, "Mrs. General." Mrs. 
Zeman was a type that shone to greatest advantage 
on the lecture platform championing the rights of 
her sex, or in woman's clubs, where her readiness as 
a debater was a great asset. We have only one book 
from her, Amerika v pravem Svetle (America in its 
True Light), published in Prague in 1903. "The 
book contains three of the lectures I delivered while 
on a visit to my native land, in some thirty towns in 
Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia." The "three lec- 
tures" is a pamphlet full of bright hon mots. The 
observations in America in its True Light are clev- 
erly phrased but superficial. She died in Prague in 

Using the popular history by Benson John Loss- 
ing as a model and "from various other sources,", 
Joseph Cermak of Chicago has compiled a History 
of the United States. In the preface Cermak asks the 
forbearance of the critic, his compilation being, as 
he explains, "an extra work, done at odd evening 
hours, in addition to the hurry-up work of a news- 
paper editor." Even the most indulgent reviewer 
will readily agree with the compiler that his His- 


Catherine M. Capek 

Josephine Humpal-Zeman 

Frances Gregor Dr. Anna F. Novak 



tory of the United States was done as extra work. A 
standard history of the United States, preferably 
a translation by a competent translator of some 
approved textbook used in our schools, is one of the 
existing needs of American Cech literature. And 
this need, unfortunately, Cermdk's history does not 
fill. Cerm^k is an authority on the technique of 
physical training and his book (412 pp.), Physical 
Training; Being a Practical Aid to Cech American 
Instructors of Youth, has earned the praise of Sokols 
here and in Bohemia. 

No visitor has written so many glaring inaccu- 
racies and screaming untruths about America as 
John Wagner (i 856-1 905, in Prague). The man 
simply could not treat America seriously or soberly; 
he only knew America as the land of "unlimited 
impossibilities," America farcical and grotesque. 
Wagner was a Cech Munchausen, and judging from 
some of his performances one is inclined to believe 
that if Bill Nye's Comic History of the United States 
had fallen into his hands, he would have pro- 
nounced it a genuine history of America. Wagner 
should have known better, for he was not a Sunday 
tourist who studies a country by looking at it from 
the window of a railroad train and then describes it. 
He lived in the United States for a considerable 
time, doing newspaper work in New York, Omaha, 
and Chicago. His pamphlet. Transatlantic Gossip, 
was published in Prague in 1898. 

Frances Gregor was born in Bohemia in 1850, but 



was brought to this country when an infant. In 
Wisconsin, where her parents settled on a farm, she 
became a school-teacher. Ambitious to better her- 
self, she entered Cornell University, from which she 
graduated with honors. The supreme wish of her 
life was realized when friends enabled her to go to 
Prague, there to devote herself to literary work and, 
incidentally, to improve her knowledge of the Cech 
tongue. The fruits of her stay abroad were, first, 
a translation of Bozena NSmcovci's charming story 
from rustic life, Bahicka (Grandmother), and later, 
the History of Bohemia. In translating NSmcovd's 
Bahicka into idiomatic English — the first story- 
book by a Cech author, so honored — Frances 
Gregor rendered a real service to literature. Many 
an American Cech youth has had his or her first 
glimpse of Cech rural life from the English version 
of Bahicka. Gregorys History of Bohemia has since 
been superseded by abler historical narratives. An 
incurable malady not only interfered with her liter- 
ary work, but made life, especially towards the end, 
unendurable. She died in 1901, in Colorado. 

Literary critics will assign to Barto§ Bittner 
( 1 861-19 1 2) ^ a leading place as an essayist. Bittner 
was intended for the law; but tiring of the Austro- 
Cech Blackstone, he gave up his law studies and 
entered a Catholic theological seminary. From this 

* Quill and Vojan: Organ Bratrstva, C.S.P.S., May, 1913; " Rem- 
iniscences of Barto§ Bittner," C.A.T.K.; "Leave-Taking of BartoS 
Bittner," Hlas Lidu, May 10, 1912. 




he ran away and came, in 1884, to this country. 
Soon after arriving, he secured a position as a 
teacher in a language school in Cedar Rapids. 
Journalism, however, attracted him, and presently 
we find him at it in New York and later in Chicago. 
In the Western metropolis he set up a humorous 
and satirical weekly, the Sotek (Imp), which soon 
achieved marked success. He reached the height of 
popularity about 1894, when the Chicago Bene- 
dictines, angered by his philippics — Bittner's 
raillery was particularly aimed at Abbot Jager — 
brought a suit for criminal libel against him. 
Though as poor as the proverbial church mouse, 
Bittner was able promptly to raise among his ad- 
mirers $20,000 bail. The winning of the suit still 
more enhanced his reputation. Having lost the 
Sotek, owing to poor business management, Bittner 
became a literary free lance, working for whom he 
pleased and when he pleased; that, for one of his 
capricious temperament, meant that he worked 
irregularly, often not at all. But whatever issued 
from his facile pen bore unmistakable evidence of 
a talent of high order. He employed political satires 
with great effectiveness. As a matter of fact there 
were two Bittners; one, who at times was given to 
conviviality. This Bittner was introspective, brood- 
ing, wretched, a grave study for the psychologist. 
The other Bittner was a poet and a thinker, a mas- 
ter of Cech diction, who defied the greatest lumi- 
naries among his countrymen. His essays, poems, 



and humorous discourses, if edited, would fill vol- 
umes. His end was as tragic as had been bohemian 
the life he elected to lead. Separated from his fam- 
ily he died alone, unrecognized, in a squalid Chi- 
cago lodging-house. 

Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, who is in charge of the Divi- 
sion of Physical Anthropology in the United States 
National Museum in Washington, was born in Bo- 
hemia, 1869. He immigrated with his parents as 
a lad. In New York he studied and for a short time 
practiced medicine. From the general practice of 
his profession he soon turned his attention to the 
anthropology of the insane and other defective 
classes. His writings, notably those on the antiq- 
uity of man in North and South America, are 
numerous and acknowledged by scientists as au- 
thoritative. Hrdlicka did research work in Eu- 
rope, Argentine, Peru, Panama, Mexico, Siberia, 
China, Egypt. He is a member of many scientific 
bodies in this country and in Europe, of the Cech 
Academy of Sciences among them. Since 191 8 he 
has edited the American Journal of Physical Anthro- 
pology, of which publication he is also the founder. 
Readers of the Dennice Novoveku have not forgotten 
the instructive articles in Cech which Dr. Hrdlicka 
contributed years ago. 

Cech America has had but a few talented writers 
of fiction. Three names have found an echo in the 
old country, Paul Albieri (1861-1901), John Hav- 
lasa, and J. R. Psenka. Albieri came to America 




with the reputation of a successful narrator of 
stories of miUtary life. In time he might have 
achieved distinction as a journalist, his fitness for 
newspaper work being undeniable, if only his rest- 
lessness, ever driving him into new ventures, had 
not set at naught every serious effort that he made 
in that direction. That he was a poor judge of men 
and a worse critic of things he proved time and 
again by his notes on America, published in Prague 
papers. Bohemian in a double sense (that is, by 
birth and by habits) he was withal a delightful 
companion and a gifted conversationalist. He met 
death in a railroad accident in Texas. 

A Chicago girl (Vlasta Charlotte Kozel, 1873- 
1901), writing under the name of Pavla Cechovd, 
contributed to newspapers colorful articles of strik- 
ing originality. Though born and bred in Chicago 
and notwithstanding the fact that she had never 
seen the inside of a Cech schoolroom, Miss Cech- 
ovk acquired a remarkable command of Cech, pre- 
ferring to compose in that language exclusively. 
Though it is uncommon for American-born chil- 
dren to use the Cech for literary expression, Miss 
Cechovd was by no means an isolated case. Miss 
Rose Rosicky, who was born in Omaha and edu- 
cated in the schools of that city, and who has only 
a book acquaintance with the native country of her 
parents, never having been in Bohemia, edits with 
ability the woman's page in the Omaha Kvety 
Americke. Mrs. Ludmila Kuchar-Foxlee, a New 



Yorker by birth and schooling, writes excellent 
Cech. Miss Sdrka B. Hrbkova, a native of Iowa, 
was formerly professor of Cech in the Nebraska 
State University. For a while she was editor-in- 
chief of a college students* monthly, the Komensky. 

Alois Janda, a theologian, actor, journalist, 
teacher, was more than an everyday versifier; he 
was a gifted poet. Janda's first ofi^ering in book 
form, Ceskym Dusim (To Cech Souls; St. Louis, 
1894), proves it beyond all doubt. When maturer 
years had tempered his judgment, Janda wrote 
articles for the Chicago Svornost remarkable for 
depth of thought and dignity of expression. He 
died in penury in Chicago, in 191 1. 

J. J. Kr^l, for years editor of the socialist daily 
Spravedlnost (Justice) in Chicago, now an employee 
of the Government in Washington, belongs to the 
younger set of writers. His most ambitious literary 
efi^ort is a volume called Vira a Veda (Faith and 
Science), 213 pp. Neither Kl^cel, nor Zdrubek, nor 
Snajdr can claim authorship to anything equaling 
Krdl's Vira a Veda. The book is replete with tell- 
ing arguments and seemingly unanswerable facts. 
Krdl's other brochures are, the Life of Abraham 
Lincoln, Life of Ladimir Kldcel, American Law 
(the author was admitted to the bar), Darwin's 
Descent of Man and the Law of Natural Selection. 

John Vranek, a Catholic clergyman in Omaha, 
published in Chicago a volume of poems, Na 
Americke Pud^ (On American Soil), 263 pp. Among 

' 208 




the Catholic clergy with literary tastes, Vr^nek 
ranks high. The life which country priests are con- 
strained to lead, notably those in charge of congre- 
gations of foreigners, is sufficiently dreary and 
monotonous to silence the talent of the most am- 
bitious ones. Father Vrcinek's lyric muse is too true 
to be silenced. 

John Stephen Broz (1865-1919), a studious and 
learned Nebraska priest (died at South Omaha) did 
research work in anthropology. No scholar was 
better informed on the subject of skeletal remains 
of the aborigines in Nebraska than Father Broz. 
On the anthropology of Indians he read papers be- 
fore scientific societies to which he belonged. He 
was, besides, an authority on the history of Cech 
immigration to Nebraska. 

V. A. Jung resided in the United States a num- 
ber of years. He received his journalistic training 
on Rosicky's Pokrok Zdpadu, some time in 1882. 
For a Prague house he translated from Byron and 
from Russian and Polish poets. He is the author of 
unabridged English-Cech and Cech-English diction- 
aries. None of his books were published in America. 

E. St. Vr^z, a traveler, author and lecturer, who 
makes his home in Chicago and collaborates on the 
Svornost and the almanac Amerikdn, has written 
extensively on travel. He is well posted on condi- 
tions in South America, having lived in the tropics 
for years. All his travel books have been published 
in Bohemia. 



Who did not know or has not heard of Dr. John 
Habenicht (1840-19 17), the author of the Dejiny 
Cechuv Americkych (History of the Cechs in Amer- 
ica) ? Countless are the anecdotes which the profes- 
sional humorist relates about the amiable doctor: 
of his innocent stage affectations and mannerisms 
and of his other notable failing, that is, an aggra- 
vated case of wanderlust. In his prime an amateur 
actor of no mean ability, Dr. Habenicht was never 
happier than when he got a chance to talk over the 
histrionic triumphs in the past of himself and of his 
stage cronies. The amateur stage was an obsession 
with him ; a close acquaintance said of him that he 
knew the heroes and the villains of Shakespeare 
dramas better than the master minds of medi- 
cine and surgery. The wanderlust led him to try, in 
a professional way, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, 
Baltimore, and towns in Texas, Nebraska, Minne- 
sota. Chicago, however, was his favorite stamping- 
ground and to Chicago he unfailingly returned. It 
was on his itineraries through the Southwest, he as- 
serts, that he picked up the data on Cech immigra- 
tion for the Dejiny. Faulty and biased, the history 
is not without merit, particularly as regards the 
names and biographies of old settlers. The "unbe- 
lievers" and the "materialists" the author excori- 
ates with gusto. 

Although only thirty-eight years of age, John 
Havlasa has a whole row of volumes to his credit. 
Havlasa's predilection for the uncanny and the 



occult has been pointed out by the critics. During 
the war he spent a few months in an Austrian de- 
tention camp for presuming to criticize the Govern- 
ment. He completed a tour around the world in 
company with his wife and had planned to lecture in 
his native country on what he had seen and experi- 
enced in America (for several years he resided in 
California), Tahiti, Japan, and elsewhere, when the 
war broke out. Apropos, his wife is a granddaughter 
of John Herman, a Wisconsin and Nebraska pio- 
neer. Havlasa came to the United States at the time 
of the St. Louis Exposition (1904) and liked this 
country so well that he stayed until 1914. 

Landislav Tupy (1872-19 18) was an ardent col- 
lector of old-time newspapers. From time to time 
the need of an American Cech museum has been 
considered ; if the project is ever put through Tupy's 
invaluable collection of journals should be ac- 
quired for it. Another of his fancies was to keep 
a record of the doings (and of misdoings as well) 
of men and women prominent in the public eye. 
This record Tupy kept with punctilious attention 
to details in much the same way as a merchant 
makes entries of sales and purchases in his ledgers. 
Tupy had been associated with Bittner on the 
Sotek, and at the time of his death (he died in a 
train accident near Chicago) was publisher of the 

The war has been the making of the reputations 
of some men; on the other hand, it has been the 



undoing of others. Dr. Frank I§ka, editor of the 
defunct Vesmir (Universe), is one of the idols 
whom the war has brushed down ruthlessly from 
the high pedestal of public favor. 

At the outset I§ka, like every Cech journalist in 
the country, was whole-heartedly against Austria 
and Germany. By degrees, as the war progressed, 
his paper, the Vesmir, was noticed to swerve to the 
side of the Austrophiles. Readers of the paper were 
puzzled. Associated with I ska on the Vesmir was 
an obscure journalist, A. C. Melichar, a pre-war 
arrival, who was strongly suspected of maintaining 
friendly relations with Austrian officials in Wash- 
ington and in New York. 

Dr. Iska gravely compromised his reputation, 
not so much by reason of charges made against him 
on January 26, 19 16, by the Providence Journal^ 
as that in the Vesmir he pursued a policy that was 
distinctly pro-Austrian. By this Dr. Iska has put 
himself in a class all by himself. Fifty-odd years of 
Cech journalism in the United States does not re- 
cord a single instance of a paper having taken its 
cue from official Austria. That the obloquy which 
Dr. Iska brought on his name will react unfavor- 
ably on the rationalist movement, of which he was, 
until the war, one of the strong men, is obvious. 

The ghost of Clement Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, 
Prince of Metternich, the crafty diplomat and 
statesman of the Austria of bygone days, must have 
been rudely shocked when Charles Pergler was 


Copyright by J'iric ihw Donald 



appointed Commissioner in the United States of 
the Cechoslovak Republic. Think of it, the repre- 
sentative in Washington of sixty-six per cent of 
what was Austria before the war a commoner, an 
out-and-out Cech, a diplomat schooled, not in the 
Vienna Terezianum, but in the law office of a town 
in the Middle West — Cresco, Iowa! 

Before the war a Cech stood small chance of 
getting a consular post and none whatever of a 
diplomatic appointment in the service of the old 
Austro-Hungarian Government. The diplomatic 
and consular service was reserved for German bar- 
ons, Magyar counts, with now and then a Polish 
szlachtic. Austro-Hungarian embassies and con- 
sulates everywhere were regarded by Cechs as 
enemy territory. The Austro-Hungarian Consul- 
General in New York was once asked what he 
thought of the American Cechs. "Of all the races 
of the Hapsburg monarchy we like the Cechs best. 
Why? Because they never come here and they 
never bother us for favors." 

When the Bohemian National Alliance, which 
was then in its swaddling clothes, began to issue 
manifestoes to the public at large signed by men 
representing various factions, certain New Yorkers 
asked inquiringly, "Who is Pergler?" All that New 
Yorkers knew about him was that he had written a 
handbook on American civics, a brief biography of 
Wendell Phillips, and that he had been on the staff 
of the Chicago Spravedlnost. One day Pergler came 



to New York to address a meeting of nationals. 
He spoke on his usual topic, Cech emancipa- 
tion. After this meeting censorious New Yorkers 
no longer asked, "Who is Pergler?" He has been 
heard many times since, and every appearance 
has strengthened the conviction that as a speaker 
Pergler has no peer among American Cechs. Palda 
had the reputation of being a speaker of rare gifts, 
but Palda was handicapped in that he spoke in 
his mother tongue only, while Pergler is equally at 
home in both English and Cech. 

Like Palda and other American Cechs who ac- 
quired prominence he is a self-made man. He was 
eight years old when his parents emigrated to the 
United States. In Chicago he graduated from the 
public schools. A year or two later his widowed 
mother returned from Chicago to Bohemia with 
the family. In Prague Pergler clerked in a store for 
a while. Even as a youth not yet out of his teens he 
took a keen interest in public affairs, writing items 
for party organs, and on occasions delivering fervid 
speeches at meetings of the younger set of the So- 
cial Democratic Party. At twenty-three we find 
Pergler back in Chicago once more, doing respon- 
sible work on the daily Spravedlnost. From journal- 
ism to law was the next step in his career. He was 
a country lawyer in Iowa when he was drafted for 
the work of the Bohemian National Alliance. 

The lectures and talks he has delivered before 
chambers of commerce, economic leagues, bar asso- 



ciations, college clubs, legislative bodies, and before 
men of affairs generally, contributed in no small 
degree to a clearer understanding by the thinking 
American people of the past history and future as- 
pirations of the reborn Cechoslovak State. 

In addition to all his absorbing duties he found 
time to write virile articles for magazines and book- 
lets on Cechoslovak subjects. The Heart of Europe 
and the Czechoslovak State are his best publications. 

Vojta Bene§, since 1916 general secretary of the 
Bohemian National Alliance, is by profession a 
school-teacher. Before the war the Matice Associa- 
tion invited him to the United States, first, to re- 
form the Cech language schools, and secondly, to 
provide these schools with up-to-date textbooks. 
As a result of his sojourn here a Prague publishing 
house printed in 191 2, "for the Patrons of the Lib- 
eral School in New York," Ceskd Citanka (Cech 
Reader, 430 pp.) "for the use of Cech-Slavic Youth 
in America." Later two more readers were brought 
out by Bene§. Returning to the United States in 
the late summer of 191 5, Benes at once joined in the 
work of political emancipation of his nationals. In 
191 6 the Bohemian National Alliance appointed 
him its organizer and general secretary in place of 
Joseph Tvrzicky, who was transferred by the 
Alliance to the Publicity Bureau. The Readers are 
not Benes's only books; he has set down his war 
impressions in several brochures. 

As a young man Dr. Jaroslav F. Smetanka, editor 



of the Czechoslovak Review, thought he wanted to 
be a minister of the gospel, and so, upon graduation 
from a gymnasium in Bohemia, he matriculated in 
the Union Theological Seminary in New York. 
The seminary course finished, Smetanka began to 
take more than a layman's interest in Blackstone's 
Commentaries. The upshot of it was that, instead 
of putting on the cloth, he entered a college out 
West and took up the study of the law in earnest, 
securing in the end a doctor's degree. When the 
world war started, Smetanka had a well-established 
law office in Chicago. In the winter of 191 7 the 
Bohemian National Alliance decided to publish a 
monthly in English. The executive of the Alliance 
offered the post of editor to Smetanka, who ac- 
cepted, and closing his law office, he became hence- 
forth a journalist. A man of broad views, Smetanka 
edits the Czechoslovak Review ably and conserva- 
tively. Recently the Czechoslovak Government 
named him Consul in Chicago. Francis Kopecky, 
Consul General in New York, was the first con- 
sular appointee to this country. 

Informed opinion is that J. E. S. Vojan, Joseph 
Tvrzicky, Karel Horky, and F. J. Kutak, stand 
at the head of the journalistic profession. 

Jaroslav E. Salaba Vojan, former editor of the 
Prague Nova Ceskd Revue, is a writer of subtle in- 
tellect and of pronounced artistic tastes. In a news- 
paper polemic he is distinguished by that urbanity 
and dignity which men like Pastor misinterpreted 




as weakness or as fear of an adversary. Vojan*s 
Cesko-Americke Epistoly (Cech- American Epistles; 
Chicago, 191 1) is an illuminative review of the 
so-called national life in America, of its bright 
and dark sides. Though all the deductions in the 
Epistles are not to be unquestioningly accepted, 
the author's courage and sincerity are worthy of 
praise. Vojan's articles written in Cech are noted 
for faultless phrasing and literary finish. 

Joseph Tvrzicky, of the Czechoslovak Informa- 
tion Bureau in Washington, rendered a peculiarly 
helpful service in the crystallization of public opin- 
ion in the first years of the war. Over his colleagues 
Tvrzicky has the advantage that he knows person- 
ally many of the men prominent in literature and 
politics in Bohemia. In Prague he had been a poten- 
tial force in the club life of academic youth. 

From Karel Hork^, who landed in the fall of 
1916, the public expected much and not without 
reason, for the reputation of a capable writer pre- 
ceded Horky from the other side. Ted" anebo Nikdy 
(Now or Never), a brochure on Bohemia's aspi- 
rations, made Horky's name a by-word in every 
household. Soon after his arrival, Horky started a 
weekly in New York, the Podebradka. This journal 
might have prospered, if the publisher (Horky) had 
been half as clever a business man as the editor 
(Horky) was. On the spur of the moment he rushed 
out a pamphlet, which on the face of it was a 
defense of his father-in-law, Dyrich, a disavowed 



leader of the Cechoslovak troops in Russia; in real- 
ity the pamphlet turned out to be a vitriolic attack 
on the men who were directing in foreign countries 
Bohemia's propaganda for independence. For good 
measure the pamphleteer slapped back at American 
Cechs. Horky's fall, as a result of the pamphlet, 
was as sudden as had been rapid his rise in public 
favor. Charles Dickens, it is said, never ceased re- 
gretting the authorship of the American Notes. The 
time will come — if it is not already at hand — 
when impressionist Horky will repent having pub- 
lished his pamphlet, Dyrich's Nation and Benes' 
Public (52 pp.. New York, 191 7). 

F. J. Kutdk is a well-poised newspaperman who 
has a way of going straight into the essentials of a 
topic. His articles are relished by readers who ap- 
preciate the value of clarity, order, and arrange- 
ment. Kutdk is editor of the Organ Bratrstva, 
C.S.P.S. He conducted the Rozkledy (Review), an 
illustrated weekly which he established in 1905 
in Chicago. 

If fiction writing assured to authors not wealth, 
but sufficiency, J. R. Psenka, editor of the Chicago 
Svornost, and author of Washington Zdvora and 
other romances from the life of American Cechs, 
would have in all probability given up journalism 
for fiction writing. PSenka served in Africa in the 
French Foreign Legion and in one of his stories he 
describes his adventures as a legionary. 

Journalists who are looked up to are: Hynek 



Dostal, of the St. Louis Hlas, conceded to be the 
ablest of the CathoHc laymen; Vaclav J. Petrzelka, 
of the Svornost; Joseph Martinek, of the Americke 
Delnicke Listy in Cleveland; F. Holecek, editor-in- 
chief, and his associate, A. J. Havrdnek, of the 
Chicago Denni Hlasatel; Otakar Charvdt, of the 
Omaha Pokrok Zdpadu; Stanislav Serpan, editor 
of the Bratrsky Vestnik (Fraternal Bulletin) ; Joseph 
J. Novy of the New Yorske Listy and B. Gr6gr of 
the Hlas Lidu. The latter two are New Yorkers. 
There are two veteran journalists in Texas: Joseph 
Bufiata, a free-lance contributor to the liberal 
press, and L. W. Dongres (Just A. Man). J. J. Kdr- 
nfk of New York, who is interested in Cech lan- 
guage schools, wields a trenchant pen. 

A large and steadily increasing group of books 
comprises literature of the useful kind : Pocket Dic- 
tionaries, English Instructors, Interpreters, Read- 
ers, Spellers, Almanacs, Memorial Books (pub- 
lished chiefly by fraternal organizations to record 
their anniversaries). Cook Books, Books of Toasts, 
Guides in Household Economy, Farmer's Guides, 
Manuals of Felicitations, Patriotic and Folk Songs, 
Handbooks of Declamations for Sociables, Hand- 
books of Speeches and Ceremonials for the use 
of Clubs and Fraternal Societies, Handbooks of 
Funeral Addresses for use at non-church burials 
(by F. B. Zdrubek, J. Kalda, B. Pavlikovd), and 
so forth. 

There are no less than six manuals on American 



civics discussing American judicature, immigra- 
tion, and naturalization laws. They are by Charles 
Jon^s, J. J. Krk\, Charles Pergler, Vladimir A. 
Geringer, J. F. Smetanka, Louis Pacik. The man- 
ual by Pacdk is the newest and most comprehen- 
sive of all. 

The output in prose and verse as a rule does not 
get beyond the newspapers, but there are, of course, 
a few exceptions. The published collection, in addi- 
tion to the books enumerated in the foregoing, in- 
clude: F. J. Skaloud, Bordinkdri (Boarders, a bit 
of romance from the life of Chicago Cechs); J. A. 
Trojan, V boji za ideal (Battling for an Ideal); 
Otakar Charv4t, Kresby a Povidky (Portraits and 
Tales); F. Staiikovd-Bujdrkovd, Po stopdch ceske 
krve (On the Trail of Cech Descendants, a Civil 
War narrative) ; Jiri Marin, Pod Mrakem (Beneath 
Dark Clouds) ; Joseph Mach, Na obou polokoulich 
(In Both Hemispheres). 

This chapter would be incomplete without men- 
tioning writers of Cech birth or extraction who seek 
to express themselves in both languages or who 
write in English only. 

Anna V. Capek: Bibliography. Frances Gregor: History, transla- 
Thomas Capek: Bibliography, tions of fiction. 

history, politics, Jeffrey D. Hrbek: Poetry. 

Thomas Capek, Jr.: Journalism. §drka B. Hrbkova: Literature. 

Jaroslav Cfsaf: Politics, trans- Ale§ Hrdlicka : Ethnography , an- 

lations of poetry. thropology. 

Anthony M. Dignowity: Mem- J. R. J iCInsky'iSokol body culture. 

oirs. Charles Jon4§: Dictionaries, 
F. Francl: Grammar. grammars. 



Author of " Our Little Czechoslovak Cousin" 

" The Story of the Slav Races." etc. 


R. J. Kerner: Bibliography. 

Otto Kotou£: Translations of 

J. J. Krai: Folk-music, biogra- 
phy, translations of fiction, 
economics, grammars. 

Antonie Krejsa: Translations of 

L. Zelenka Lerando: Music. 

Beatrice M. MSkota: Transla- 
tions of fiction. 

J. V. Nigrin: Grammars. 

Charles Pergler: Politics, his- 
tory, economics. 

Godfrey R. Pisek: Medicine. 

Vincent Pisek: Translations of 

E. F. Prantner: Politics, eco- 

Charles Recht: Translations of 
poetry, drama. 

That American Cechs of the younger generation 
have not, heretofore, taken a more general interest 
in English Bohemica is both surprising and regret- 
table. They have shown their mettle in commer- 
cial and professional pursuits — why the aloofness 
from literature? ^ 

1 For a complete list of English Bohemica, see Thomas Capek and 
Anna V. Capek: Bohemian (Cech) Bibliography. 256 pp. Illustrated. 
Fleming H. Revell Company. New York, 1918. 

Rose Rosick^: Translations of 

B. Simek: Politics. 

Joseph Sinkmajer: Ecclesiastical 

Jaroslav F. Smetanka: Politics, 

Anthony M. Soukup: Diction- 
aries, language manuals. 

Edward O. Tabor: Political econ- 

Ladislav Urban: Music. 

J. E. S. Vojan: Art, music. 

Clara V. Winlow: Child study, 
juvenile fiction, history. 

F. B. Zdrubek: Grammars, dic- 

Jaroslav J. Zmrhal: Grammars, 



A BRASS band or a symphony orchestra with- 
out a Cech is unthinkable. At Fortress Mon- 
roe, at Presidio, at West Point, Annapolis, the 
Brooklyn Navy Yard, in the Philippines, Hawaii, 
Porto Rico, at Western army posts, where there is a 
brass band a Cech musician is certain to be around. 
Joseph Buchar, veteran of the Civil, Indian, and 
Spanish-American Wars, was bandmaster at the 
Academy at West Point. William Emanuel Bo- 
leska (Bolech) was bandmaster at the Brooklyn 
Navy Yard. He had served with the Navy since 
1874. During the Civil War he was bandmaster of 
the Sixth Regiment of United States Infantry. 
Bandmaster Vondracek (Von Drack), from New 
York, wielded the baton for a quater of a century 
at various army posts. Hanzi Lochner, also a New 
Yorker, was bandmaster aboard a man-of-war 
stationed off Guam. Jaroslav Jicha conducts on the 
battleship South Carolina; F. Karasek, at the 
Arsenal in Columbus, Ohio; Jacob Schmidt was, 
during the war, bandmaster at Camp Cody, New 
Mexico. V. F. Safrdnek, formerly at Fort Snelling, 
is conductor at Fort Kamehameha, Hawaii. Before 
that he was attached to a post in the Philippines. 
M. Torovsky leads a band at Annapolis. Major 



Vincent F. Faltis, now an American citizen and res- 
ident of New York, was a bandmaster in Cairo. 
He wears a number of British, Egyptian, Bulgarian, 
and German ribbons. "Kryl and his Band" is an 
organization of recognized merit in the Middle 
West. The Mudra and Zdmecnik bands of Cleve- 
land were in their day unrivalled in Ohio. 

If it were possible to enumerate all the musicians 
who are dependent wholly or partly on income de- 
rived from music at dances, funerals, and amateur 
theatricals, one would get a formidable total. At 
one time (1903) there were eleven Cechs in the 
Theodore Thomas Orchestra. 

When in 1883 a certain fledgling of the Prague 
Conservatory of Music was leaving the Cech capi- 
tal for a concert tour to the United States, John 
Neruda memorialized the event by one of his in- 
imitable feuilletons in the Prague Ndrodni Listy, 
so unusual was the occurrence, so venturesome 
appeared the project! Who could count all the 
pupils and graduates of that conservatory now con- 
nected with the various musical organizations, or 
earning their living as teachers? 

Instances of musical families are not uncommon. 
Take the Ondriceks. The founder of the family re- 
nown was Francis Ondricek, violinist, who visited 
the United States in 1895. He went back, but four 
of his kinsfolk came here to live. Emanuel has a 
music school in Boston; Charles, who had been a 
member of the Kneisel Quartet, is established in 



Toronto. One sister, a violinist, is married to Karel 
Leitner, piano teacher in New York; the other sis- 
ter, a piano teacher, is the wife of Bedrich Vdska, 
a cellist with the Eastman Quintet in Rochester. 
Vdika is said to have organized the Sev£ik Quartet, 
an organization well known in Europe. The On- 
dri^eks have inherited their gift from their father, 
whom old Prague remembers as an inveterate 

The Ersts, of Chicago, grandfather, father, and 
son, three generations of musicians, were all grad- 
uates of the Prague Conservatory of Music: the 
grandfather, Stephen Erst, in 1846 as clarionet- 
ist; the father, Stephen Erst second, as vocalist in 
1883; the son, Stephen Erst third, in 1910 as pian- 
ist. Stephen Erst second is choirmaster in a prom- 
inent church in his home city. 

How many musical families in the United States 
can equal the record of the Hrubys of Cleveland? 
Local No. 4, American Federation of Musicians, has 
enrolled twelve Hrubys as members. Lagging some- 
what behind the Hrubys in numbers, yet a force .to 
be reckoned with, is the ZimeSnik clan of the same 
city: John Zdmecnik (honorary), John S. ZdmeS- 
nik, Joseph ZdmeSnik (honorary), Joseph E. Zdmec- 
nik, Joseph J. Z4me2nik. The directory of member- 
ship of Local No. 4 contains 179 Cech names. ^ 

Bohumir Kryl of Chicago, a popular cornetist, 
has two daughters who are accomplished musicians. 

* American Federation of Musicians, Local No. 4, Cleveland, p. 78. 



Josy Kryl, a pupil of Ysaye, is a violin virtuoso; 
Marie Kryl has won recognition as a pianist. Joseph 
Kryl, Bohumir's brother, plays the French horn 
with the Chicago Philharmonic Society. 

Francis Ondi'iCek and Jan Kubelik lead as violin- 
ists. Kubelik's first visit occurred in 1901. One 
year after that Jaroslav Kocian came. "Before my 
time," writes J. H. Chapek, violin teacher in Chi- 
cago, "no Cech violinist had given concerts in this 
country except Wenzel Kopta. In 1866 Kopta was 
soloist with the Theodore Thomas Orchestra and 
the New York Philharmonic Society. The following 
year he traveled with Max Strakosch. He married 
Flora Pauline Wilson of Philadelphia, returning 
thereupon to his native country. In Prague Kopta 
and I belonged to the same musical organization 
and Antonin Dvoi^ak often came to hear us play. 
If my memory serves me right, Joseph Ka§par of 
Washington, D.C., toured the country in 1879-80." 

Many years ago Kopta removed with his family 
from Bohemia to southern California and he died 
in the coast State in 1916. His wife has translated 
a volume of Cech poems into English. 

The largest colony of artists is of course found in 
New York. 

Wenzel A. Raboch, in former years organist in 
the Trinity Church, is frequently heard at organ 
recitals, and critics have declared that on the or- 
gan, his favorite instrument, Raboch has not many 



Joseph J. Kovdrlk, of the New York Philhar- 
monic Society, was pronounced by Safonov, the 
Russian conductor, one of the best viola players 
in the country. An intimate friend of Dvorak, — it 
was at Spillville, Iowa, Kovdrik's birthplace, that 
the great composer put the finishing touches to 
the " New World Symphony, " — Kovdfik is thor- 
oughly familiar with Cech music. In the Prague 
Conservatory, he made the personal acquaintance 
of many prominent Cech composers. 

There is in the metropolis, Joseph Stransky, con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic Society of New York. 

Rudolf Friml, pianist and composer, began his 
career as Kubelik's accompanist. Friml now devotes 
himself entirely to composition and in his light 
creations he has met both with professional and 
financial success. The musical comedies "Fire- 
fly," "High Jinks," "I Love You," and others, have 
attained wide popularity, notably in New York. 

Victor Kolar, violinist, who on occasions con- 
ducted the Damrosch Symphony Orchestra, aims 
higher as a composer of music than mere commer- 
cial profit. He writes serious music, and those who 
know this striving young musician predict he will 
make a mark for himself. His better known com- 
positions are: "Lyric Suite," "Hiawatha," "Indian 
Scherzo," "Fairy Tale," "Americana," and "Sym- 
phony D-dur." Koldr introduced himself to musi- 
cal America some dozen years ago, when he came 
over with the "Cech Trio" (Kold?, violin. Reiser, 


VACLAV KOPTA. violinist 

J. J. KOVARIK, viola 

J. H. CAPEK, violinist 

V. A. RABOCH. organist 


violoncello, Volavy, piano). The story is that Jan 
Kubelik "discovered" Koldi' in Budapest. 

Alois Reiser (Koldr's colleague from Prague), 
won in 1918 the Elizabeth Coolidge (Berkshire 
String Quartet) second prize in composition. 

John Mokrejs, a piano teacher, has composed a 
number of piano suites. He is the author of Les- 
sons in Harmony and Lessons in Rhythm. 

Ladislav Urban, composer, wrote the booklet, 
Music in Bohemia. 

Ludvik Schwab, teacher and composer, came to 
New York as Kubelik's accompanist. 

Margaret Volavy, pianist, teacher in the Volpe 
School of Music was schooled in Vienna, while 
Marie Mikova received her training in Paris. 

Emil J. Polak, composer and accompanist, has a 
clientele largely among the Metropolitan Opera 

Ludmila Voj^ckovi-Wetche, pianist, is a gradu- 
ate of the Prague Conservatory ; so is Joseph Franzl, 
instructor on the French horn in the Institute of 
Musical Art, and Anna Fuka-Pangrdc, organist. 

Last but not least, Otakar Bartik is master of 
ballet in the Metropolitan Opera. 

A composer of unquestioned ability was the late 
Otakar Nov42ek, who played first violin with the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra, later with the New 
York Symphony Orchestra. He died in New York 
in 1900. 

Music teachers, as may be inferred, are most 



numerous in cities populated by their nationals. 
The Directory of Bohemian Merchants and Traders 
of Chicago contains the cards of twenty-two con- 
servatories and nineteen bandmasters. However, 
enterprising talents are found everywhere. 

Pupils of the Prague Conservatory who have 
helped to make Cech music better known are: 
Charles Rychlik, John S. Zdmecnik, and Edward 
Krejsa, of Cleveland. All three have studied under 
Dvordk and all three compose. 

Joseph Cadek is master of a conservatory of 
music in Chattanooga. He gave a violin recital in 
the White House during McKinley's administra- 
tion. On this occasion for the first time Cech music 
was heard in the official residence of the Presidents. 
Marie Herites-Kohn teaches the violin in the Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College at Stillwater, Ok- 
lahoma; August Molzer is head of a school of 
music at Lincoln, Nebraska; J. Gerald Mrdz, au- 
thor of Systematized Intervals, a work on violin 
technic, is the founder of the Mraz Violin School in 
Oklahoma City; Vratislav Mudroch is with the 
Mudroch School of Music in Nashville. The Mdlek 
Music School in Grand Rapids, Michigan, takes its 
name from Otakar Malek, pianist, formerly assist- 
ant conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Society. 
Though born in Egypt, Emil Straka has not lost 
through the accident of his birth the inherited bent 
of his race for music. Straka's music school is in 
St. Paul. Before he settled permanently in America, 



L. Zelenka Lerando was concert harpist to the 
Duke of Devonshire and later at the court of Det- 
mold, Lippe. He toured America in 1911-15. 

A Cech by birth (on his father's side) was Joseph 
Mischka, for more than half a century a teacher of 
music in Buffalo. Born in 1826, Mischka settled in 
that city with his parents in 1853. John Borecky, 
who knew Mischka personally, counts him as a 
fellow countryman, spelling his name My ska. He 
died in Buffalo in 1913. 

Born in the same year as Mischka and like him a 
teacher among the Germans was Hans Balatka. 
In Milwaukee Balatka achieved wide renown as 
author, conductor, and musical critic (writing for 
the Illinois Staatszeitung) . In former years he was 
happy to get into touch with his nationals. He did 
not deny his Cech birth ; environment, he declared, 
had made him a German.^ 

A genius in his own way was John Reindl, who 
came to New York in 1869, with Slavjansky's Rus- 
sian Concert Company. In Prague Reindl sang in 
the Russian Cathedral with the wife of Antonin 
Dvorak. For a time he was soloist in the Russian 
Cathedral in San Francisco and while in that city 
he took up the study of Chinese, and friends claim 
he was the only Cech who could carry on a conver- 
sation in that language. Reindl died in New York 
in 1906 in poverty. 

Singers almost forgotten by the present genera- 

^ The Pokrok Zdpadu, April 25, 1899. Balatka's obituary. 


tion are Anna Drdzdil (Drasdil) and Clementine 

Anna Drdzdil, contralto, was the pioneer song- 
bird to appear in the United States. Her greatest 
success is recorded from Philadelphia, where she 
sang in the Academy of Music, September 20-27, 
1876, with Theodore Thomas. To Peter Capek, a 
Milwaukee musician, she confided that she was 
born in Budejovice and that she first visited the 
United States in 1872, arriving from London. In 
the early eighties she married a New York mer- 
chant after which she retired from the concert 
stage. ^ 

Clementine KalaS, a contralto and composer "of 
rare literary attainments and esthetic culture," 
belonged to Colonel Mapleson's operatic ensemble. 
She died in Brazil while on a concert tour, in June, 
1889, sincerely mourned by the literary and artistic 
set in Prague. Vrchlicky wrote a poem in her mem- 
ory, "E Morta." The Clementine KalaS founda- 
tion, in the Cech Academy of Sciences and Arts, 
awards prizes for the best compositions. 

On "Bohemian Day," August 12, 1893, at the 
Chicago Columbian Exposition, two masters of 
music conducted their own compositions; one was 
Antonin Dvorak, the other Vojtech I. HlavaS of 
Petrograd. HlavdS returned to Russia, the country 
of his adoption, where he died a few years ago. To 
the American musical public Antonin Dvorak, 

* The Pokrok Zdpadu, October 27, 1875. 




composer of the "New World Symphony," re- 
quires no introduction. He came to New York in 
1892, to take charge of the National Conservatory 
of Music, founded by Jeannette Thurber, remain- 
ing until 1895. 

Ernestine Schumann-Heink is not a Cech, though 
born in Libeii, near Prague; the same is true of the 
late Gustav Mahler, whose affiliations had been 
with the Germans of Bohemia, not with the Cechs. 

Frances Janauschek (1830- 1906) was a Cech, 
notwithstanding the fact that she had never acted 
on the Bohemian stage, having played first in Ger- 
man and later, when she mastered English, in that 
language. The author had many interesting talks 
with Madame Janauschek in 1899 and corre- 
sponded with her. She frankly admitted to him that 
her people had been of pure Cech stock. But her 
dramatic training was German, as indeed Prague at 
the time of her girlhood had the veneer of a German 
city. Upon one visit, when Madame Janauschek 
was already gravely ill, she surprised the author by 
saying the Lord's Prayer (Pater Noster) in fluent 
Cech, though, as she remarked, she had lived the 
greater part of half a century outside her native 
country. In the national tongue the name is spelled 

Joseph Smaha, regisseur of the National Theater 
in Prague, gave a number of readings and dramatic 
performances (with the support of amateurs) in the 
larger Cech communities, notably in Chicago, the 



year of the Columbian Exposition. The sojourn 
of this noted actor was productive of much good; 
the amateur enthusiasts (no community, however 
diminutive, is without these) had an opportunity 
to study at close range Smaha's histrionic art and, 
incidentally, to better their own. 

An event of unusual importance was the arrival 
in 1893 of Ludvik's Theatrical Company from 
Bohemia. Heretofore the burden of producing plays 
in the Cech language rested entirely on the shoul- 
ders of the much-worked amateur clubs. Ludvik 
came over with an ensemble of twenty-two men and 
women and after he had toured pretty thoroughly 
all Cech America, amid the acclaim of people, most 
of whom had not seen a play acted in their mother 
tongue by professional actors in years, if ever, Lud- 
vik settled in Chicago, where his company has 
remained ever since. It is the only Cech dramatic 
organization of professionals in the United States. 
In 1898 Ludvik took his actors on a trip to Bo- 
hemia and if the press agent's accounts can be 
trusted, they captured theater-goers with their 
repertoire of American plays translated. ^ 

In the winter of 1898 there arrived in New York 
the Cech Humoristic Troupe consisting of Henry 
Kov4f, Joseph Wanderer, Rudolph Prusa, Engel- 
berta Heisler, Rose Breicha. They toured the larger 

* 1893-1903- Memorial of Ludvik's Theatrical Company, published 
on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of a Cech playhouse in 
Chicago. Illustrated. 52 pp. 



settlements with success. The Cech Singing Quar- 
tet (Mikolds, Cerny, Novdk, Svojsik) paid a pro- 
fessional visit to their American nationals in 1902. 

Two American actresses of Cech descent have 
been flatteringly noticed by dramatic critics: 
Blanche Yurka of New York and Adelaide Novak 
of Chicago. Blanche Yurka's high talent was recog- 
nized in "Daybreak," in which play she achieved 
conspicuous success. There is still another Novak, 
namely Jane, a well-known photoplay star. 

Four or five of the visiting musical artists bear 
European reputations: Jan Kubellk, violin virtu- 
oso, Emmy Destinn, prima donna of the Metropoli- 
tan Opera in New York, Carl Burian, tenor, who 
will be remembered by the older patrons of the 
Metropolitan Opera. Newspapers have put down 
Leo Slezik as a Bohemian tenor, though he pro- 
fessed to be "Internazional." 

One season (191 5) the roster of the Metropolitan 
Opera in New York contained the name of Erna 
2drskd, soprano. 

Bogea Oumiroff, baritone, at present living in 
Paris, visited the United States three times. During 
the winter season of 1903, Oumiroff, accompanied 
on the piano by Rudolph Prusa of New York, sang 
Cech and Slovak folk songs In the White House be- 
fore President Roosevelt. "This appearance In the 
White House I consider one of the artistic triumphs 
of my life," declared Oumiroff. Cech folk songs, by 
the way, were again heard in the White House; this 



time they were sung by Louise Llewellyn, an Amer- 
ican soprano, whose interpretation of them, critics 
agreed, was exceptionally felicitous. 

Rose Matura, a dramatic and operatic artist of 
the National Theater in Prague, gave a number of 
recitals here in 1903. Later two Prague singers, 
W. Florjansky (accompanied on the piano by 
Francis Veselsky) and Bohumil Ptdk toured the 
country. Such as they were, their artistic successes 
were confined to audiences of nationals. 

The high position of Cech graphic art is ably sus- 
tained in the United States by three names, Preis- 
sig, RuziCka, Vondrous. 

Rudolph Ruzicka of New York is credited as 
being without peer among wood engravers plying 
the art in America. He is president of the Czecho- 
slovak Arts Club in New York. 

J. C. Vondrous, etcher, also a New Yorker, be- 
longs to the Anglo-American school, a classifica- 
tion of which he may well be proud. 

No collection of American war posters can be 
complete or representative without the colored 
posters which Vojta Preissig designed for the Bo- 
hemian National Alliance. Preissig's posters are 
animated, masterful. The artist, full of patriotic 
wrath, is seen inflicting unsparing chastisement on 
Austria-Hungary, "the embodiment of centuries- 
old crime against the liberty of mankind." Preissig 
is professor in the Wentworth Institute in Boston. 

Albin PoUSek and Joseph Mario Korbel are the 



two foremost sculptors of Cech birth in America. 
Pold§ek is professor in the Chicago Art Institute. 
Korbel is a New Yorker with a growing patronage 
among the wealthy. 

Illustrators of Cech birth or extraction are many. 
A pioneer illustrator is Emanuel V. N^dherny, for 
more than twenty-five years member of the art 
staff on the New York Herald. Vincent A. Svoboda 
of New York specializes in poster drawing ; some of 
his genres, however, have been genuinely admired. 
Harrison Fisher inherited his talent from his Cech 
father. The elder Fisher, who died in California, 
was a painter though not as successful as his son. 

Joseph Mr^ek of New York is the leading repre- 
sentative in the United States of Cech peasant art. 
Jan Matulka, also a resident of New York, won the 
Joseph Pulitzer prize in the Academy of Design. 

Next to New York Chicago has the largest com- 
munity of artists. A veteran among these is Marie 
Koupal-Lusk, painter. She immigrated with her 
parents in 1867 and studied in New York and Paris. 
A. Sterba, painter, and Albin Pol4sek, sculptor, 
teach in the Chicago Art Institute. Some of the 
other painters, designers, illustrators, and sculptors 
are, Rudolf F. Ingerle, Thomas F. Ouska, Oldrich 
Farsky, August Petrtyl, Rudolf Bohungk, A. Lukd§, 
Jarka Kosaf. 

Of the visiting artists Alfons M. Mucha is by far 
the most widely known. While in America Mucha 
received a commission from Charles R. Crane, of 



Chicago and New York, to paint a cycle of alle- 
gories symbolical of the evolution of the Slav. 
When completed, the canvases are to be presented 
by Crane to the municipality of Prague. 

Bohuslav Kroupa, illustrator, traveler, author, 
lecturer, knew the Northwest and the American 
cowboy and Indian as intimately as any native. 
He illustrated the publication. From Ocean to 
Ocean; Sanford Fleming's Expedition through Can- 
ada in 1872. His experiences of travel and of life 
among the Indians he stored in an English pub- 
lication, An Artist's Tour in North and Central 
America and the Sandwich Islands. (London, 1890.) 
The Prague illustrated papers printed many of his 

That America is an object of ever-increasing con- 
cern to the people on the other side is apparent 
from the long list of transatlantic visitors — • publi- 
cists, artists, business men. 

The earliest known guests were the Reverend 
Herman z Tardy and the Reverend L. B. KaSpar 
who came in 1869 in the interest of the Cech Re- 
formed (evangelical) Church. The Reverend Kas- 
par described the journey in a Report of Pilgrimage 
undertaken to America i86g. 

Joseph V. S14dek, one of Bohemia's major poets, 
a Shakespearean scholar, a translator of Bret Harte, 
Henry W. Longfellow, Frank Richard Stockton, 
Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Lord Byron, Robert 
Burns, S. T. Coleridge, spent a few months in the 


United States Minister to Rumania 


United States (1869-70), to the enduring profit of 
his country's Hterature. 

Another stranger was Dr. Joseph Stolba, whose 
volume, Beyond the Ocean, pubHshed upon his re- 
turn in 1873, long retained primacy among books 
on American travel. Like all Stolba's travelogues, 
Beyond the Ocean is written in a light, rather humor- 
ous vein, making no attempt at deeper research. 

The Chicago World's Fair (1893) brought hither 
a number of travelers, two authors of prominence 
among them : Francis Herites and Joseph Korensk^. 
The latter-named set out from Chicago, with his 
friend and traveling companion (Rezni2ek), on a 
tour around the world, which he described in two 
large volumes, Travels around the World in 18Q3-Q4. 
Herites's study of American conditions was favor- 
ably commended at the time for its fairness and 

Dr. Emil Holub delivered a series of lectures on 
his African travel and discoveries before ethno- 
graphic and geographic societies in 1 894. 

An exceptional interest attached to the visit in 
1902 of Thomas G. Masaryk, then the leader of the 
realist party in Bohemia. Five years later Masaryk 
returned. He spoke on political, national, economic, 
and philosophic topics. Incidentally Masaryk lec- 
tured at the University of Chicago on the "History 
of a Small Nation." 

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the 
Inter-Parliamentary Congress, held in St. Louis 



(1904) were attended by engineers, manufacturers, 
and men of affairs generally. George Stibral, Su- 
perintendent of the Art and Industrial School in 
Prague, jointly with Architect John Kotera, had 
charge of the arrangement of the technical part of 
the Austrian section of the exposition. 

President Masaryk is not the only one who knows 
America from close-at-hand study; three ministers 
of his first cabinet — Vaclav J. Klofac, Minister of 
National Defense, the late General Milan R. Ste- 
fanik, Minister of War, Dr. Francis Soukup, Min- 
ister of Justice, have traveled here more or less ex- 
tensively — while a fourth (Gustav Haberman, 
Minister of Education) lived in the United States 
long enough to have been entitled to citizenship. 
None appeared to be more profoundly impressed 
with the industrial potentialities of the New World 
than Dr. Soukup. His volume, America; a Series of 
Pictures from American Life, which he published 
in 19 1 2, stamps the author as a wide-awake, astute 
observer, though by no means a flatterer. To Dr. 
Soukup, who is a social democrat and who sat as 
deputy in the old Austrian Parliament, was ac- 
corded the privilege of speaking before the House 
of Representatives in Washington. 

Gustav Haberman toiled in New York and in 
Chicago on socialistic newspapers. He made three 
journeys to America, in 1889, 1892, 1913, as one 
learns from his volume. From my Life, published 
in 1914. 



Stefanik traveled across the continent for the 
first time in 1910 bound for Tahiti for the purpose 
of making astronomical observations on that island. 
During the war Stefanik twice revisited America. 

The Cech Sokol Union paid to the American 
Sokols a long-deferred visit in 1909. The "Sokol 
Excursion to America," as the Sokol annalists call 
it, was led by Dr. Joseph Scheiner, the president of 
the organization. At least three of the excursionists 
set down in print their observations. Dr. Scheiner's 
book is entitled, Sokol Excursion to America in iqoq. 

At the instance of the Cech Press Bureau in Chi- 
cago, Count Liitzow in the winter of 191 2 delivered 
lectures in American universities and colleges on 
the "Bohemian Question." His subjective ideas 
Count Liitzow embodied in a pamphlet, written in 
German, Amerikanische Eindriicke. 

Other visitors who wrote their impressions of 
America were: Cenek Kricka, architect, lately 
elected to the National Assembly (published his 
notes in the Prazskd Lidovd Revue, 1905-06), and 
J. F. Votruba, writer on economical subjects. Dr. 
George Guth, John Havlasa and F. Sokol Tuma 
were commissioned by Prague papers to "write up " 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Havlasa found 
California, to which he repaired, so congenial that 
he prolonged his stay for years. The American 
rationalists asked Dr. Theodore Barto§ek (1907) 
and Charles Pelant (1908), both active in the ra- 
tionalist movement in Bohemia, to lecture to them. 



A delegation of the Prague Chamber of Com- 
merce came in 191 2 to repay a visit that had been 
previously made by the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce. Not only merchants, but scientists joined 
the delegation. 

Dr. Charles Veleminsky made a fruitful study of 
the American school system in 1912. Dr. Vele- 
minsky, who holds a responsible position in the 
Ministry of Education, purposes introducing in the 
Czechoslovak Republic many of the school features 
thought to be distinctively American. 



THE Slovansk^ Lipa Society in Milwaukee 
opened a Cech language school June 22, 1862.^ 

Joseph W. Sykora, in a letter from Cleveland to 
the Slavie, announces that July 24, 1864, after the 
saying of the mass, instruction to children would 
be given in spelling, reading, and arithmetic, in the 
schoolrooms of the St. Joseph Church.^ 

The first language school in Chicago was organ- 
ized in the fall of 1864. " Instruction in the mother 
tongue will be conducted every Saturday from 
10 A.M. to 2 P.M.; Sundays from i p.m., for adults 
in the Hall of the Slovanskd Lipa." 

New York's first school dates from September 
24, 1865, and we are told that thirty-nine children 
were in attendance at the opening.^ 

In 1 88 1 the Slovan Americky began agitating the 
question of founding a Cech College somewhere in 
the Middle West, in or near some larger settlement. 
A society for that purpose was incorporated in John- 
son County, Iowa, and the Slovan Americky, the 
originator of the idea, undertook to raise a founda- 
tion fund. But the Slavie — because the idea had 
not emanated from the editor of that paper, the 

* The Slavie, June 18, 1862. 

« Ibid., July 14, 1864. » Ihid., May 22, 1867. 



Slovan Americky charged — while not openly hos- 
tile to the scheme, expressed grave doubts concern- 
ing its feasibility. "Our opinion is that we can ven- 
ture into it with a fair hope of success," commented 
the Slavie, "if we raise $20,000 to start with. If 
American Cechs want the college, they will no doubt 
subscribe this sum." The $20,000 endowment fund 
was not subscribed, and the college was not founded. 

At the instance of the American (Congregational) 
Home Missionary Society, Oberlin College organ- 
ized in 1885 a Theological Seminary in connection 
with its Slavic Department. Through the Anne 
Walworth bequest of 1905, Oberlin College came 
into possession of a fund, the income of which is 
sufficient to provide for the instruction and main- 
tenance of about ten students.^ Professor Louis 
Francis Miskovsky is chairman of the faculty com- 
mittee of the Slavic Department.^ The Reverend J. 
Prucha of Cleveland is certain that of all American 
higher institutions of learning Oberlin College was 
the first to introduce in its curriculum the study of 
Cech. "Our mother tongue has been taught in this 
school for more than five years," he wrote in 1894.^ 

At Lisle (Du Page County, Illinois), the Bene- 
dictines have established what the college sylla- 
bus describes as the only higher Cech-Slavic educa- 

* The Bulletin of Oberlin College, March lo, 1916, p. 6. 

^ The establishment of the Slavic Department was due to the un- 
tiring efforts of the Reverend H. A. Schauffier, 

' Communication by the Reverend J. Prflcha, the Pokrok Zdpadu, 
Februcuy 7, 1894. 






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tional institution in America. This college was 
opened in 1887, in Chicago, but was removed in 
1 90 1 to Lisle, where a more suitable building had 
been erected for its needs. ^ The founders dedicated 
the school to St. Prokop (Procopius), whose name 
it bears. 

Between the language schools, which the liberal 
element support out of voluntary gifts, and the 
Catholic parochial schools, there is the essential 
difference that while the Catholics give full instruc- 
tion to children, the liberals practically confine 
their school courses to teaching the Cech language 
only, sessions being held after public school hours. 
The liberals, needless to say, are opposed to sec- 
tarian instruction, contending that children should 
not be deprived of the advantages which the public 
school offers. 

All told the number of children receiving instruc- 
tion in the liberal schools is from 7500 to 8000. 
Chicago, with its suburbs, maintains nineteen 
schools, attended by 1340 pupils.^ The school in 
New York City is attended by 800 pupils. Cleve- 
land sends 700 children to the language schools. 

"In five years we have succeded in getting into 
our organization 69 schools with 5292 children," 
says J. J. Kdrnik.^ 

^ Annual Report of St. Procopius College, at Lisle. 1908-09. 

^ Directory and Almanac of the Bohemian Population of Chicago, 
p. 66. 1915.^ 

' Ceskd Skola, v. xviii, p. 16. Published by the Ceski Americki 
Matice Skolskd in 191 5, in commemoration of the death of a great 


The University of California has had a lecturer 
on Cech (George R. Noyes) since 1901. During the 
year 1919-20 courses in elementary Cech with exer- 
cises in conversation, reading, and composition will 
be given in Columbia University (A. B. Koukol). 
For a time B. Prokosch taught it in the University 
of Wisconsin and L. Z. Lerando in the Ohio State 
University. Prokosch also lectured on Cech and 
Russian in the University of Chicago. Coe College 
in Iowa (Anna Heyberger) and the State University 
of Texas (Charles Knizek) give courses. The best 
organized departments teaching not only the fun- 
damentals of the grammar, but the reading of more 
difficult texts, prose and poetry, with exercises, are 
found in the Dubuque College and Seminary (Alois 
Barta), the St. Procopius College (Kosmas Vesely), 
and Oberlin College (Louis F. Minkovsky) . 

A Cech department was established in the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska in 1907. The late Jeffrey D. 
Hrbek was put in charge. After his death, his sister, 
Sdrka B. Hrbkova, succeeded him, remaining at its 
head until 191 9, when it was abolished. 

Between 191 3-1 5 instruction in the language was 
given in the State University of Iowa (Anna 

Cech is taught in one or two high schools in Chi- 

Cech, Master John Hus. Edited by J. J. K&rnik ; Discourses on school 
subjects and pedagogical manuals of the Cech American School 
Association (Matice). Last pamphlet is numbered v. xxi; Vojta 
BeneS: Contribution to the Reform of the Cech Schools in America, 
vs. IV and v. 88 pp. Cleveland, 1914. 




cago, in the high schools at Wilber, Prague, Crete, 
Clarkson, Brainard, Fremont, Verdigre, and Milli- 
gan, in Nebraska. 

"In addition," writes Dr. R. J. Kerner, of the 
University of Missouri, "Harvard University (Dr. 
Leo Wiener), University of Michigan, University of 
Notre Dame, University of Pennsylvania, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, gave courses in Slavic languages 
and literatures usually Russian, in the case of 
Notre Dame, Polish."^ 

* For much of this information the author expresses his gratitude 
to Dr. Kerner, Dr. Lerando, and Professor Hrbkova. Professor 
Meader of the University of Michigan wrote in 191 3 for the Russian 
Review (published by the University of Liverpool) a short, but good, 
account of the origin of Slavic work in the United States. 



THE strength of Catholics and of Protestants 
may be approximated by the number of 
congregations and pastors which they respectively 

According to their official organ, ^ the Catholics 
had, in 191 7, 270 priests administering 320 par- 
ishes, missions, and branches. Several of these were 

* The Katolik. Cech American Almanac for the year. Register of 
Cech priests in America, pp. 194-97. Register of Cech Catholic Set- 
tlements in America, pp. 197-207. 

Reading : Rev. Anton Peter Hou§l^ : The Cech Catholic Settlements in 
America. St. Louis, 1890. Rev. Joseph Sinkmajer: (e) "The Bohe- 
mians in the United States." The Catholic Encyclopedia, v. 11, pp. 620- 
22. Rev. Valentine Kohlbeck: (e) "The Bohemian Element. Short 
History of the Bohemian Catholic Congregations in Chicago," The 
New World, pp. 136-40. April, 1900. The First Annual Report, or a 
catalogue of the St. Prokop College in Lisle, Illinois, for the year 
1901-02. Rev. J. G. Kissner: (e) "The Catholic Church and the 
Bohemian Immigrants," The Charities, Dec, 1904. New York. Rev. 
Valentine Kohlbeck: (e) "The Catholic Bohemians in the United 
States." The Champlain Educator, January-March, 1906. The First 
Cech Catholic Convention. Held in the St. John Nepomuk Church, in 
St. Louis, September 24-26, 1907. 54 pp. Rev. Prokop '^enzW: Memo- 
rial of the St. Prokop Congregation. Twenty-five Year Jubilee of the 
Consecration of St. John Prokop Church, pp. 7-29. Chicago, 1908. 
Rev. Prokop Neuzil : Twenty-five Years of Endeavor. Report on the 
work of Cech Benedictines of the St. Prokop Abbey in Chicago, 
from the year of their coming to Chicago in 1885 to 19 10. 73 pp. 
Chicago. Dr. John Habenicht: The History of the Cechs in America. 
St. Louis. 1904. Rev. John Rynda: A Guide through the Cech Catho- 
lic Settlements in the Archdiocese of St. Paul (Minn). 233 pp. Chi- 
cago, 1910. 


Allport and Eighteenth Streets, Chicago 


mixed; that is, Cech-German, Cech-Irish, Cech- 
Polish. The St. Prokop Parish in Chicago is rated 
the strongest and supposedly the richest in the 

No State supports a greater number of Catholic 
centers (churches, missions, stations, either wholly 
Cech, or mixed, that is, Cech-Irish, Cech-Polish, 
etc.) than Texas — 68. Wisconsin ranks next with 
57 centers. Then follow: Nebraska, 48; Minnesota, 
28; Iowa, 21; Kansas, 16; Illinois, 14 (of which 
10 congregations are situated in Chicago); South 
Dakota, 12; North Dakota, 9; Michigan, 7; Mis- 
souri, 6; Ohio, 6 (all 6 in Cleveland); New York, 6 
(2 in New York City); Oklahoma, 5; Maryland, 4; 
Massachusetts, 2; Pennsylvania, 2; Indiana, 2; Vir- 
ginia, 2 ; and i each in New Jersey, Oregon, Colo- 
rado, Washington.^ 

The first Catholic house of worship was built in 
St. Louis, in the autumn of 1854. It was dedicated 
to St. John Nepomuk. Father Lipovsky of Lipovice 
was the first priest.^ 

Under Father Joseph Hessoun, who took charge 
of the St. John Nepomuk Chapel about 1865, St. 
Louis grew to be the center and stronghold of Ca- 
tholicism. To the present day the older immigrants 
harbor a peculiar affection for St. Louis even though 

^ The Katolik, for 1917, pp. 197-206. 

' The Reverend Henry Lipovsky, scion of a noble family, had an 
active career. He was assigned as a missionary to London, Rugby, 
and Cardiff; later he served in China as chaplain to British troops 
stationed there. He died in Prague in 1894, aged sixty-seven years. 



the Chicago Benedictines wrested the scepter of 
leadership from it. In St. Louis Father Hessoun 
lived and labored for many years. He was the great- 
est prelate the American Cech Catholics have had. 

Considering that in the mother country the Cath- 
olics constitute ninety-six per cent of the entire 
population and the Protestants less than three per 
cent,^ the number of Cech-Protestant churches and 
congregations in the United States might seem to 
be disproportionately large. If the old country per- 
centage were to hold good the Protestants should 
have four houses of worship instead of thirty-five 
which they really possess. 

The Protestants, among whom the Presbyterians 
are very active, notably in the East, maintain 
1 60 centers as follows: Presbyterians, 55 centers; 
Union of the Bohemian-Moravian Brethren in 
North America, 30; Baptists, 28; Methodists, 21; 
Congregationalists, 19; Independent Reformed, 5; 
Reformed Congregationalists, 2. 

Several congregations are mixed; in Pennsyl- 
vania they are Cech-Slovak. About one hundred 
pastors have charge of the spiritual welfare of the 
evangelical parishioners. The Jan Hus Presby- 
terian Church in New York, Dr. Vincent Pisek, 
pastor, with 1057 children attending the Sunday 
School, leads the list.^ 

^ According to the official Austrian statistics. 
" The Sion, National Almanac for the year 191 7. Schematism of 
the Cech-Slavic Evangelical Churches in America. 

Reading: The Reverends William Siller, Vdclav Prficha, and 




Trying as the beginnings of the CathoHcs have 
been, they cannot be compared with the difficulties 
which beset the old-time Protestants. When the life 
story of the Reverend Francis Kun is told the emo- 
tions are moved as when reading a chapter from 
Sienkiewicz's novel Quo Vadis, depicting the hard- 
ships of the early Christians. Lack of churches and 
priests were the main drawback of the Catholics. 
Then, too, the clergy had to contend with religious 
indifference and in many instances the open hostil- 
ity of the people. The Protestants of two genera- 
tions ago had neither houses of worship, nor min- 
isters, nor — religionists. So long was the evangeli- 
cal faith discriminated against in Austria that at 
the time the ban against it was removed, by the 
Patent of Tolerance, there were scarcely any Prot- 
estants left in Bohemia and Moravia. There was not 
one regularly ordained minister in either country 
to attend to the spiritual needs of the scattered 
few who survived the anti-Reformation. Pastors 
(known to the church history as "Tolerance Pas- 
tors") had to be literally borrowed from neighbor- 
ing Hungary to help. 

Before the Union Theological Seminary in New 
York and the Slavic Theological Department in 
Oberlin College trained the first pastors of Cech 

R. M. De Castello: Memorial of t^ech Evangelical Churches in the 
United States: containing the description of all Cech congregations of 
Presbyterians, Independents, Reformed, Congregationalists, Metho- 
dists, and Baptists as they existed in 1900. 290 pp. Chicago, 1900. 
Souvenir of Slavic Baptists in America. 34 pp. Chicago, 1909. 



nationality, the entire burden of missionary work 
devolved upon non-Cechs. In New York it was a 
Magyar, the Reverend Gustave Alexy, who sought 
out, instructed, and organized Cech Protestants. 
That was in 1874. The theological training of the 
first Cech minister in New York, Dr. Vincent Pisek, 
was not completed until 1883. The Reverend H. A. 
Schauffler, a member of the noted family of Amer- 
ican divines of that name, did apostolary work 
among the Cechs in Cleveland. Having learned the 
language, Dr. Schauffler came to be recognized as 
their leading religious adviser and the champion of 
their wants before American co-religionists (Con- 
gregationalists). The Bethlehem Chapel in Cleve- 
land, dedicated in 1885, was the result of Dr. 
Schauffler's untiring effort; the Slavic Theological 
Department in Oberlin College is likewise conceded 
to have been his idea and his achievement.^ 

Dr. Schauffler figures prominently in the religious 
revival of Chicago Cechs. At a Conference of the 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions held 
in that city in 1883, Di*- Schauffler argued some- 
thing like this: "What have you done for your 
38,000 Cechs? Nothing. Chicago has the largest 
settlement of Cechs of any city in the land. Their 
newspapers advocate free thought and there are 
other reasons why evangelical endeavor should be 

^ ^ (e) The Slavic Department of Oberlin College. Under the super- 
vision of the Slavic Committee of Theological Seminary. 21 pp. 
Oberlin, 1916. 





furthered among them." A few weeks after the hold- 
ing of this conference, Dr. Schauffler had the satis- 
faction of reporting to his friends that his appeal 
had not been a fruitless one; that the Reverend 
E. A. Adams, his colleague in Prague, would give 
up his post in the Cech capital and would de- 
vote himself wholly to missionary work among 
the Chicago Cechs. 

Proficient in the Cech language like Dr. Schauf- 
fler, Dr. Adams won in time the respect and affec- 
tion of the Chicago community. Even the liberals 
learned to esteem this amiable, tolerant Yankee 
churchman. In the autumn of 1884 Dr. Adams de- 
livered his prefatory sermon before a congregation 
consisting of some sixteen persons; in 1890 that 
same congregation, with the help of American 
friends, was able to build the Bethlehem Chapel at 
a cost of $35,000. 

A few words of tribute should be paid to the 
pioneer evangelist, the Reverend Kun, who founded 
the mother church at Ely, Iowa. Descended from 
a family of preachers, — his grandfather had been 
one of the Tolerance Pastors called from Hungary 
to Bohemia and Moravia to care for Protestants 
there and his father also had been a minister of the 
gospel, — Klin's relation to the early Protestants 
was precisely the same as that of Father Hessoun's 
to the Catholics: he was an admired leader, and an 
unselfish friend. Of his stern resolve and his devo- 
tion to what he considered his duty to co-religion- 



ists, we can form a faint conception when we re- 
member that he often braved a trip of sixty miles 
through roadless country to visit his people. That 
was before and during the Civil War. He preached 
in English, Cech, or German, as circumstances re- 
quired. To the United States Kun emigrated in 
1856. Before coming he was warned that " the pros- 
pects for a Cech pastor were not encouraging." 
Kun was wont to make an annual tour to parish- 
ioners in Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, Kansas. Ten 
houses of worship were built and as many congre- 
gations organized along his customary route. The 
worthy man died at Ely in 1894 ^^ his sixty-ninth 

The first evangelical service in Cech was held in 
Texas. The pastor conducting it was the Reverend 
Joseph Zvoldnek, a colleague in Moravia of the 
Reverend Kun; the year was 1855 and the place, 
Fayetteville. However, it is not Fayetteville, but 
Wesley, in Washington County, which claims pre- 
cedence as having the oldest evangelical congre- 
gation in Texas. The organization of the parish at 
Wesley dates to 1864. Among the pastors at Wesley 
is mentioned no less conspicuous a person than 
F. B. Zdrubek, who had charge of the parish in 

The Protestants maintain 43 centers in Texas; 23 

in Pennsylvania (mostly Slovak); Nebraska, 14; 

Illinois (Chicago), 12; Ohio (Cleveland), 11 ; Iowa, 

* Memorial of Cech Evangelical Churches in the United States, p. 130. 


IIIU DiiiMiiu 



10 ; Minnesota, lo; Wisconsin, 5; Kansas, 5; New 
York, 5; South Dakota, 4; Oklahoma, 3; Maryland 
(Baltimore), 2; Missouri (St. Louis), 2; Virginia, 2; 
I each in New Jersey, Delaware, Michigan, Ten- 

* The Sion. National Almanac for 1917, pp. 115-25. As to Bap- 
tists: Souvenir (book) published to commemorate the first conven- 
tion of Baptists of Slavic nationality held in Chicago, 1909. Preface 
by the Reverend V. Kiklllek. 



THERE are no dependable figures relative to 
the number of various Cech fraternal organ- 
izations in the United States. All is guesswork in 
fT this regard. Generally it is thought that the number 
of lodges and clubs is not below 2500. The Chicago 
community is credited with no less than 500. In 
191 5 the Chicagoans were represented in the Build- 
ing Association League of Illinois with 227 Building 
and Loan Associations.-^ 

Two distinct classes are recognizable : benevolent 
or confraternal organizations which pay a benefit in 
case of sickness or death, and non-benefit associa- 
tions. Of the non-benefit class the most interesting 
are the Sokols (gymnastic),^ the amateur theatrical 
clubs, and the choral societies. No community of 
any consequence is without at least one of the three. 
The Cech loves song and the choral society offers 
him an opportunity to sing; so long as the profes- 

^ The Directory and Almanac of the Bohemian Population of Chi- 
cago, p. 44. 191 5. 

' J. R. Jicinsk;^: The Memorial of the National Union Sokol (Nk- 
rodni Jednota Sokolsk^) in the United States. In commemoration of 
its twenty-fifth anniversary. 224 pp. Chicago, 1904; J. R. Jicinsk;^, 
editor: Tracing the History of the American Sokols. 43 pp. Chicago, 
1865-1908; Henry Ort: The First All-Sokol Convention, held in Chi- 
cago, August 26-29, 1909- 132 pp. Chicago, 1909. Josef Scheiner: 
The Sokol Excursion to America in iqoq. 108 pp. Prague, 1910; Josef 
Oswald: The Excursion of tech Sokols to America. 1909. Pribram. 


sional stage in America will not grant entree to the 
dramas and the comedies of his native playwrights, 
he will have amateurs act on the amateur stage his 
kings, his heroes, his peasants, his maids. And what 
Cech youth would not enrol as a Sokol and give 
ready assent to the truism that only a healthy body 
can give lodgement to a sound mind? 

The parent society, there is no doubt, originated 
in New York. Havlicek's Slovan, of May 7, 1851, 
contains this direct reference to it: "As an interest- 
ing piece of news for our readers we here give a brief 
extract of a letter of March 3, received by us from 
a Mr. T. who emigrated five years ago to New 
York." The writer, Mr. T., proceeds to tell how the 
Cech residents of New York had organized a club 
the year before (1850) giving it the name, Cech 
Society. Nationals who contemplate going to Amer- 
ica are advised to write to the club if they desire 
trustworthy information about the country. 

Who was T.? Presumably none other than the 
army deserter, Tuma, who fled from the garrison 
at Mainz either in 1847 or 1848, and who opened a 
saloon (casino) in New York. 

From the diary of Vojta Ndprstek we learn that 
the club alluded to by T. bore the name "Cech 
Society." VAclav Pohl was president; Andrew 
Hub^c^ek, vice-president; F. V. Cerveny, treasurer; 
Joseph Cilinsky, secretary; Vojta Ndprstek, libra- 
rian. The Cech Society met in the hotel (saloon) 
of Colonel Charles Burgthal (erroneously spelled 



Burgthaler), 14 City Hall Place. This ramshackle 
building has been torn down to make room for the 
present Municipal Building. Colonel Burgthal was 
no colonel at all, but a non-commissioned officer in 
the Austrian army. He received his chevrons of 
colonel, not from the Austrian army command, 
but from the admiring patrons of his tavern. The 
fact that his wife was of Cech birth made the 
colonel's resort homelike to the countrymen of his 

Before the end of the year forty-two men had en- 
rolled as members. Vojta Ndprstek, at his own re- 
quest, took charge of the society's library. Apropos, 
books were Nciprstek's hobby; it is said that among 
the treasured volumes he had brought in his grip- 
sack from Europe were the works of Voltaire, Fou- 
rier and Saint-Simon. An insatiable reader and a 
modernist in the fullest sense of the word, Ndprstek 
was never happier than when he could lend his 
books to book-lovers. 

Of the members of the Cech Society, none rose to 
greater prominence than Francis Korbel and Vojta 
N^prstek. By a singular twist of fortune the Gov- 
ernment, which in 1848 tried to apprehend Korbel 
as a revolutionist, appointed him in 1894 Austrian 
Consul in San Francisco. Having retired from ac- 
tive business long ago, Korbel is living quietly in 
the Cech capital, from which he was forced to flee 
in 1848-49. 

A picturesque member was Joseph Krikava. 



After various unsuccessful ventures — he tried 
photography and farming — Krikava opened a 
wine-shop at 50 Avenue B, which became the favor- 
ite haunt of the old-timers. "Grandfather Krikava," 
as his boon companions called him, died in New 
York in 1888. Vaclav Pohl claimed to have fought 
in 1848 behind the barricades in the short-lived 
revolution in Prague. A radical of the Havli^ek 
type, Pohl converted many a pioneer to his way of 
thinking. By trade he was a cabinet-maker and a 
wood-carver, although he tried his luck at many 

Andrew Hubdc^ek ^ was related to the well-known 
family of that name. August Hubdcek's saloon in 
East Fifth Street, New York, was for years the 
center of Cech social life. Great was the renown 
of the Hub^cek name in New York. One of the 
Hub^ceks who settled in Rochester is reputed to 
have planted in that city the Bohemian prune 

F. V. Cerveny was of respected stock. The Cer- 
venys of Kr^love Hradec, in Bohemia, have been 
far-famed since 1842 as makers of musical instru- 
ments. F. V. Cerveny, too, was apprenticed to this 
craft and worked at it in a shop at 16 John Street, 

* Almanac Amerikdn, 1890. Pohl died in Kewannee, Wisconsin, 
in 1893. 

* Wilson's City Directory of the City of New York for 1850-51 con- 
tains the name of Joseph Hub4fek, capmaker, 73 First Avenue; the 
same directory for 1852-53 has Andrew Hubaczek, engraver, 86 
East Broadway. 


New York City.^ Like N^prstek, Cerveny removed 
early from New York to Milwaukee. There he died 
at the age of eighty-one. 

Accounts vary as to the official name of the Cech 
Society. On the title-page of a volume which N4- 
prstek donated to the society's library, there is this 
inscription : To the Cech-Slavic Union in New York 
(Cesko-Slovanske Jednote v New Yorku venuje 
V. N. i8|52).'^ Tuma thinks the title was Cech 
Society (Ceskd Spolecnost). A. Hub^cek is certain 
the full title was the First Cech Slavic Society in 
America (Prvni Cesko-Slovansky Spolek v Amer- 
ice).^ Lastly, Anton Kotzian contends it was the 
Cech Linden Tree (Ceska Lipa). 

The oldest existing fraternal organization (estab- 
lished in March, 1854, in St. Louis) is the Cech 
Slavic Benevolent Society, known by its initials, 
C.S.P.S. In miniature the history of the C.S.P.S. 
is the history of Cech America — rather of the 
half of it which inclines toward liberal thinking — 
for the C.S.P.S. fraternity stands for liberalism. 
Its potentiality first began to be felt after the 

Before that time the influence it exercised on Cech 
affairs was unimportant, unless the C.S.P.S. is to 

* Doggett & Rode: New York Directory for 1851-52. 

* The initials V. N. are undoubtedly in the handwriting of Vojta 
N&prstek, though they may be those of Vaclav Nebesk^ (1818-82), 
Kl&cel's literary friend and associate. 

» Reminiscences of A. Hubd^ek (of San Francisco), Pokrok Zd- 
padu, August I, 1894. 





be given credit for things done not by itself as an 
organization, but by its members. 

Affiliated with the C.S.P.S. is the Union of Cech 
Women (Jednota Ceskych Ddm). The Western 
Cech Fraternal Union is an offshoot of the C.S.P.S. 
Owing to conflict of interests between the East and 
the West, which the convention, held in St. Paul, 
Minnesota, in 1896, failed to reconcile, a number of 
opposition delegates met in a conference in Omaha 
the year following the St. Paul convention and or- 
ganized there a wholly independent body, giving it 
the name Western Cech Fraternal Union. John 
Rosicky, the Omaha editor, led the opposition. 
Fortunately the secessionists have affirmed their 
adherence to the ideals of liberalism which have 
ever been the distinguishing feature of the parent 

To stand well in the opinion of his American 
neighbor was (and for that matter still is) the su- 
preme concern of the immigrant. When a news- 
paper made a slurring remark about his nationality 
or, what hurt his sensibility still deeper, ignored or 
underrated him at this or that public function, 
grumbling was general. On the other hand, all 
rejoiced and felt proud when the race name, Bo- 
hemian, Cech, had been linked to some noteworthy 
act or when a Cech here or in Europe had been 
featured in the press. 

Societies have been organized and newspapers 
established with the sole aim of "interpreting to 



Americans Cech ideals; of defending the honor of 
the Cech name in America." The National Union 
(N^rodni Jednota), the Cech American National 
Committee (Cesko-Americky Ndrodni Vybor), the 
National Sentinel (Ndrodni Strdz), the&^tional 
Council (Ndrodni Rada), the Slavic Alliance (N4- 
rodni Sdruzeni), ther Cech American Press Bureau 
(Cesko-Americkd TiSkov^ Kancelar) were some of 
the societies dedicated to this object. Every one of 
them performed some good service, removed some 
prejudice, added in some way to bringing knowledge 
of the Cech to Americans. 

No society started out with brighter prospects of 
success than the Cech American National Com- 
mittee. Backed by the C.S.P.S., which fathered it 
(1891), supported by the entire liberal press, it bid 
fair to become the institution of all Cech factions. 
According to a programme outlined by L. J. Palda, 
its president, the Cech American National Com- 
mittee proposed to open a press bureau in Prague 
to the end that American newspapers might be sup- 
plied with impartial news relative to Bohemia and 
the Cechs; to publish a monthly magazine in the 
English language; to publish in English or assist in 
the publicatioh of the history of Bohemia; to found 
a library of English language works dealing with 
Cech and other Slav countries; to gather statistical 
and other data bearing on Cech immigration to the 
United States; to foster closer cultural and commer- 
cial relations between Bohemia and the United 



States; to urge upon Cech immigrants the vital im- 
portance of American citizenship and of the knowl- 
edge of English, preserving, as far as practicable, 
the Cech tongue, so that Americans of Cech ances- 
try might be able to read, in the language of their 
fathers, the story of the sufferings of the Cech race 
and through this lesson prize more highly the bless- 
ings of liberty enjoyed by them in America. Rob- 
ert H. Vickers's History of Bohemia, the first story 
of the nation in English, was published. The Bo- 
hemian Voice was issued as the "organ of the Bo- 
hemian National Committee" (with Thomas Capek 
as editor). The other tasks the Committee could 
not realize at all, or only partially. The following 
Cechs and Slovaks were members of the Commit- 
tee: L. J. Palda, Charles JondS, John Rosicky, F. 
B. Zdrubek, Bohumil Simek, Anton Klobasa, J. V. 
Teibel, J. H. Stgpdn, Vdclav Snajdr, V. W. Woy- 
tiSek, J. V. Matejka, Joseph Wirth, I. J. Gallia, 
Hynek Opic, F. Choura.^ 

The Society for the Promotion of Higher Edu- 
cation (Matice Vyssiho Vzdel^ni), established in 
1902, was planned chiefly by two men. Bohumil 
Simek was its Intellectual organizer. The practical 
promoter, the man who financed it, was W. F. 
Severa, manufacturer of proprietary medicines in 
Cedar Rapids. Severa's substantial endowment 
gift made the Matice not only realizable, but what 

* Minutes of the Second Meeting of the National Commitee, held 
in Chicago, the 24th, 25th, and 26th November, 1892, 28 pp. 




IS more essential, he laid an enduring foundation 
thereto. An auxiliary of the Society for the Pro- 
motion of Higher Education is the Federation of 
Komensky's Educational Clubs. Everywhere in the 
Middle West where there is a college, and students 
of Cech birth or extraction attending it, there is apt 
to be a Komensky Club. 

The Cech American Press Bureau (originating 
tn Chicago in 1909) owed its existence to the gen- 
erosity of Francis Korbel and rendered, aside from 
its purely reportorial function, meritorious serv- 
ice on two distinct occasions. It invited to Amer- 
ica Count Liitzow, pioneer in English Bohemica. 
Liitzow delivered a series of talks in colleges, before 
audiences composed of youth who will mould the 
public opinion of to-morrow. No man was better 
qualified than Liitzow to lecture on Bohemia before 
cultured Americans. His renown as an author and 
his thorough mastery of the language — Liitzow 
was English on his mother's side — gave additional 
interest to his authoritative presentation of the 
subject. The Press Bureau cooperated with Burton 
Holmes in making motion pictures in Bohemia and 
in giving illustrated lectures in principal American 

Following a bad precedent and grouping them 
into Catholic and non-Catholic, the principal fra- 
ternal organizations, which pay full or only nom- 
inal sick and death benefits, are: 



^.> fV 







TiA ..Mindaich Nwia." 



Catholic Organizations * 


Cech Roman Catholic First Central Union in the United 
States (Cesk4 I^imsko-KatolickA Prvni CstFednl Jednota 
ve Sp. St. Americkych) 5,i88 

Central Union of Women in the United States (Ost?edni 
Jednota 2en ve Sp. St. Americkych) 9.580 

Catholic Workingman (KatoHck^ DSlnIk) 3.931 

Cech Roman Catholic Central Union in Wisconsin (CeskS, 

ftfmsko-Katolicki Jednota ve Stdtu Wisconsin) 900 

Catholic Union in Texas (KatolickA Jednota Texask&) 2,186 

Western Cech Catholic Union (Z4padnl Ceskd KatolickA 
Jednota) 3,703 

Cech Roman Catholic Union of Women in Texas (Ceskd 

ftfmsko-Katolickd Jednota 2en ve St^tu Texjis) 2.070 

Cech Roman Catholic Benevolent Union under the patron- 
age of St. John Nepomuk in Ohio (Ceskd ftfmsko-Kato- 
lick4 Podporujici Jednota pod z45titou sv. Jana Nepo- 
muck6ho ve StAtu Ohio) 2,200 

Cech Roman Catholic Union of Women in Cleveland, Ohio 

(CeskA llimsko-KatolickA Jednota 2en v Cleveland, O.) . . . i ,500 

Catholic Union Sokol (Katolicki Jednota Sokol) 1.650 

Total 32,908 

Non-Catholic Organizations ' 

Cech Slavic Benevolent Society (Cesko-Slovansk^ Podporu- 

jid Spolek, C.S.P.S.). Official report, February, 1919 23,680 

Western Cech Fraternal Union (Z&padni Cesko-BratrskA 

Jednota, Z.C.B.J.). Official report, November, 1918 21,149 

Union of Cech Women (Jednota Cesk^ch D4m, J.C.D.). 
Official report, February, 1918 23,000 

* For these figures the author is indebted to the Reverend Valen- 
tine Kohlbeck, editor of the Chicago Ndrod and Katolik. He writes 
(December 4, 1918): "These figures are official and, therefore, accu- 
rate. Quite a number of our people belong to other organizations, 
such as the Catholic Order of Foresters, Knights of Columbus, etc. 
These organizations are not Bohemian, although many of the soci- 
eties (lodges) are entirely composed of Bohemians." 

' For these figures the author's thanks are due to B. O. VaSkfl, 
editor of the t.S.B.P.J. Orgdn. 




Sisterhood Benevolent Union (Sesterskd Podporujld Jed- 
nota, S.P.J.). Official report, May, 1918 12,000 

Sokol Community in America (Sokolsk4 Obec v Americe). 

Official Report, 1919 10,302 

Slavic Benevolent Union in the State of Texas (Slovansk^ 

Podporujfcf Jednota St^tu Texas, S.PJ.T.). Estimated.. . 9,500 

Cech Slavic Union (Cesko-Slovansk4 Jednota, C.S.J.). Offi- 
cial report, December, 1918 6,385 

Cech Slavic Fraternal Benevolent Union (Cesko-Slovansk& 
Bratrskd PodporujicI Jednota, CS.B.P.J.). Official report, 
January, 1919 3,667 

Union of Taborites (Jednota T^boritfl, J. T.). Estimated. . , 2,500 

Cech American Union (Cesko-Americk^ Jednota, C.A.J.)' 

Estimated 2,000 

Cech Slavic Benevolent Woman's Society (Cesko-Slovansk6 
Podporujici Dimske Spolky, CS.P.D.S.). Official report, 
February, 1919 2,500 

Association of Cech American Women (Sdruzeni Cesko- 

Americk<'ch Dkm, S.C.A.D.). Estimated 3,000 

Union of Cech Patriotic Women (Jednota Cesky-ch Vlaste- 

nek, J.C.V.). Estimated 3i500 

Total 123,183 



AT the time he was taking leave of his compa- 
triots in America, President Masaryk (Farewell 
Address, November ii, 191 8) declared that in the 
history of liberation the American Cechs and Slo- 
vaks are assured honorable mention. 

The American Cechs played a double r61e in the 
drama which ended in the humbling in the dust of 
the Hapsburgs and the final disruption of the Dual 
Monarchy. In the first place they financed the ex- 
ternal revolutionary movement. They are consid- 
ered the richest, as they are admittedly the strong- 
est, branch of the race outside the motherland. 
Secondly, it was expected of them that they would 
present the cause of the Cechoslovaks before the 
country and would endeavor to win for it American 
public opinion. 

That it was Masaryk who had the rare insight 
and foresight to get away from Austria while it was 
yet time was regarded as a happy augury. On the 
occasion of his two previous visits Masaryk had 
made a host of friends here. The liberal and, not- 
ably, the intellectual element held him in high es- 
teem. Masaryk is sincere in all his actions, and as 
Carlyle expresses it, "sincerity, a deep, great, genu- 



ine sincerity, is the first characteristic of all men 
in any way heroic." He enjoyed full confidence of 
the leaders at home. Vienna feared him, for it found 
that he was unassailable. Shortly before the war the 
readers of a Prague journal took a test vote on the 
question: if Bohemia were a republic, who would 
be elected its president? Significantly, Masaryk re- 
ceived the majority of the votes. 

The external revolution against Austria was set 
in motion the moment Masaryk reached Swiss soil. 
For obvious reasons the first few months the propa- 
ganda he and his confreres planned had to be car- 
ried on in secrecy. Prague was known to swarm with 
spies and informers and no one must be unneces- 
sarily compromised or sacrificed. 

On July 6, 191 5, the day of the quincentenary of 
the burning of Bohemia's national hero and mar- 
tyr, Hus, Ernest Denis lectured on the essence of 
Hussitism in the Hall of the Reformation at Geneva, 
Switzerland. On this day Masaryk, in a few curt 
sentences which he delivered without any attempt 
at oratory, laid down the nation's platform : " Every 
Cech must now elect whether or not he is in favor 
of reformation or anti-reformation; must now say 
whether or not he is in favor of the Cech idea or the 
Austrian idea. Austria is the mouthpiece in Europe 
of anti-reformation and reaction." 

Months before the Hus celebration in Switzer- 
land, where Masaryk first publicly arraigned Aus- 
tria, the American Cechs were busy at work. In 



September, 19 14, the New Yorkers formed the I 
American Committee for the Liberation of the Cech 
People. An organization nation-wide in scope was 
formed in Chicago as a result of a conference held | 
in that city, Januaix^rS^i^l^ After June 6, iS^iSi ' 
this society was officially designated as the Bohe- 
mian National Alliance (Cesk^ Ndrodni Sdruzeni). 
Rapidly the Alliance spread a network of branches 
throughout the country ; by the time the war ended, I , 
these branches numbered some 350. Dr. L. J. 
Fisher, a Chicago physician, now in the service 
of the Czechoslovak Government in Prague, was 
elected president, remaining at the head of the 
Alliance almost until the end of the war. Upon his 
departure for the front in France, Dr. Joseph F. 
Pecival assumed presidency. Joseph Tvrzicky was 
chosen executive secretary and manager of the 
Press Bureau. Since 1916 Vc>jta Benes acted as 
organizer. The important office of treasurer was 
entrusted to James F. St^pina, president of the 
American State Bank. For a time Dr. J. E. S. Vojan 
functioned as secretary, J. J. Zmrhal and Dr. J. F. 
Smetanka attending to English language corre- 
spondence. When the United States declared war 
on the Central Powers, the Alliance promptly re- 
adjusted its programme to meet the new conditions 
incident to the war. Heretofore the Alliance had 
labored for Cechoslovak freedom. From that time 
on its branches became the sentinels of wholesome, 
loyal Americanism, efficient agencies for the sale of 



Liberty Bonds, rallying points for volunteering and 
for war activities in general. That the Cechoslovaks 
bought as many Liberty Bonds as the official fig- 
ures disclose they did, is due, in a large measure, 
to the efforts of the Alliance and its branches and 
to the Slovak League. The women kept an even 
pace with the men. Their sewing and knitting 
"Bees" turned out sweaters and comfort kits for 
the soldiers in France, Italy, and Russia. Many of 
the societies of the "Bees" became in war-time 
auxiliaries of the American Red Cross. Libuse S. 
Motak of New York, prominent in relief work, 
has been appointed since Representative for the 
United States of the Czechoslovak Red Cross. 

If cannon is the ultima ratio regum, the last ar- 
gument of kings, money is an indispensable weapon 
of the up-to-date revolutionary. Precisely how large 
a fund was raised by the American Cechs and Slo- 
vaks has not yet been made public; when official 
figures are available we may be surprised to find 
that the total runs not into the hundreds of thou- 
sands but into millions. The money was gathered 
by means of self -taxation, donations, bazaars, — not 
without hard work, scheming, and pinching. Three 
centuries of subjection, political and economic, 
have pushed the Cechoslovaks into the employee 
class; wealthy men are the exception. How to raise 
millions from workmen was a problem. 

Not a dollar was asked for or accepted from 
any foreign source. Those were Masaryk's orders. 




" This is our revolution, and we must pay for it with 
our own money." The first bazaar of consequence 
was held in New York in the winter of 191 6. It 
yielded $22,250. This was thought an extraordi- 
nary achievement. The bazaar given in Cleveland 
in March, 191 7, netted $25,000 and one closely fol- 
lowing it in Chicago, $40,000. The comparatively 
small Omaha community surprised all by making 
$65,109.20 in September, 191 8. A few weeks la- 
ter the Texas Cechs got together at a bazaar fete 
in Taylor another $50,000 or $60,000. The bazaar 
at Cedar Rapids (Iowa) turned in $25,000. The 
Thanksgiving Day offering in 191 8, which was na- 
tion-wide, totaled $320,000. To this Chicago gave 
over $100,000, Cleveland $40,000. All the money 
was not spent for political purposes. Large sums 
went to relieve distress on the other side. For in- 
stance, one million francs were cabled to the Cecho- 
slovak Minister of Foreign Affairs in Paris for the 
purchase of food. 

In order to reach and stir up the masses it was 
necessary to hold meetings without number. Meet- 
ings are the salt, the ferment of all questions requir- 
ing public discussion. Meetings sustain the spirit 
of the waverer, they dispel the doubts of the pes- 
simist. Press publicity was another, though more 
subtle, lever of the agitator. Both agencies were 
employed as needs required or means permitted. 
Speakers visited every community of fellow coun- 
trymen from Canada to Texas. The majority of these 



speakers were, of course, Americans. Before he ac- 
cepted service in the Mihtary Intelligence Division 
of the United States Army, Captain Emanuel V, 
Voska of New York held iti his hands the threads 
of the propaganda in the East. 

Lecturers and propagandists came from Europe, 
too. F. Kopecky, a plain-spoken artisan from Lon- 
don, brought tidings from the small colony of Cechs 
there. Personal contact with the Cechoslovaks in 
Russia was established through Captain Ferdi- 
nand Pisecky, who reached America in 191 7. Under 
the auspices of the Alliance Captain Pisecky toured 
the principal Cech and Slovak settlements. Four 
officers, Lieutenants Miloslav Niederle, Antonin 
Holy, Joseph Horvath, and Oldrich Spaniel, ar- 
rived in the winter of 1917-18. Although they came 
from France — rather from the Cechoslovak Army 
in France — all four were war veterans from Rus- 
sia. The object of their journey was military; they 
were after recruits for war service in France. Sol- 
diers who came here on missions connected with the 
war, military, political, and diplomatic were: Gen- 
eral Milan R. Stefanik, Colonel Vladimir H urban, 
Captains Zdenko Fierlinger, Jaromir Spacek, and 
V. Houska, Major John Sipek, Lieutenants F. 
Danielovsky and Charles Zmrhal. 

It is not known that many a Teuton plot to fo- 
ment strikes, to set warehouses and docks on fire, 
to blow up munition-carrying ships was bared and 
many an evil-doer apprehended and sent to prison 



on evidence furnished to the Government by loyal 
Cechoslovaks. To run down the malefactors and 
checkmate their nefarious activity, Cechoslovak 
agents were scattered throughout the industrial 
centers in the East, to warn the Slavic workmen 
not to strike unless they wanted to do the bidding 
of the Kaiser and his paid agents. 

Newspapers and magazines were established in 
foreign lands. At home the press was muzzled ; the 
censor would not permit it to speak out the nation's 
will, the nation's hope. Since Prague was forced to 
keep mute, exiles living in Russia, France, Switzer- 
land, England, and the United States, must speak. 
And they did speak. The Cechoslovak prisoners of 
war started a paper in Russia, which they called 
the "Cechoslovak. It printed articles in Cech, Slovak, 
and Russian. Professor Ernest Denis, of the Sor- 
bonne, brought out in Paris, May, 191 5, La Nation 
Tcheque. A few months later appeared the Cesko- 
slovenskd Samostatnost (Cechoslovak Independ- 
ence), also in the French capital. The New Europe, 
with Masaryk among its collaborators, came out in 
London, October, 1916. The Alliance started pub- 
lishing the Bohemian Review in Chicago in Febru- 
ary, 1 91 7; since November, 191 8, it has appeared 
under the corrected title, Czechoslovak Review. 
Leaflets, pamphlets, and books printed in French, 
English, Russian, Italian, and Cech were turned 
out unstintingly and sent to college libraries, clubs, 
to men of affairs, men influential in politics and 



literature. Suffice it to give the titles of some of 
these books and leaflets: Bohemia under Hapsburg 
Misrule (Capek); Bohemian Question, Heart of- 
Europe (Pergler); Voice of an Oppressed People, 
Problem of Small Nations (Masaryk); Future of 
Bohemia (Seton- Watson) ; Bohemia: her Story and 
her Claims (Marchant) ; Case of Bohemia, Czecho- 
slovaks, an Oppressed Nationality (Namier); Bo- 
hemia (Benes and Zmrhal) ; Bohemia's Claim for 
Freedom (Proch^zka); Bohemia's Case for Inde- 
pendence (E. Benes); Czechoslovaks, a new Belliger- 
ent Nation (Hazen) ; Austrian Terrorism in Bohemia, 
etc. The Slav Press Bureau was opened in New 
York; this formed the nucleus out of which grew 
the Czechoslovak Information Bureau now exist- 
ing in Washington. Unobtrusive work was done 
outside the organization, too. For instance, the 
author of this volume made it a practice to send, 
during the war, propagandist letters to men promi- 
nent in public life in the United States and England. 
The alarming news cabled to America of the 
massacres of rebellious soldiers, of executions of 
civilians, of trials for treason (Dr. Charles Kramer, 
the first Premier, and Dr. Alois Rasin, the first 
Minister of Finance were sentenced to death; 
President Masaryk's daughter. Dr. Alice G. Masa- 
ryk, was thrown into prison) , of confiscations by the 
Government of properties of those found guilty of 
treason or desertion, or espionage, or opposing the 
armed power of the State, nerved the workers, if 



anything, to greater effort. More indignation meet- 
ings, more appeals for protection to the State De- 
partment, more pamphlets, more intensive agita- 
tion, more cables to agents and couriers in Europe.^ 
Then there was the minor detail work. Artistic 
stamps and post-cards were put into circulation, 
buttons and badges and diplomas were sold for the 
benefit of the campaign fund. VojtSch Preissig, of 
the Wentworth Institute in Boston, designed mas- 
terful war posters. Most of such interesting trifles as 
badges, buttons, post-cards, came from the work- 
shops of the members of the Cechoslovak Arts 
Club of New York. This Club decorated in an ar- 
tistic manner the show windows of prominent 
business houses on Fifth Avenue with Cechoslovak 
colors, views and portraits, maps, posters, and 
printed matter. A most valuable exhibit from an 
educational point of view proved to be a huge port- 

* Some of the news items cabled here were, fortunately, mere in- 
ventions of the war reporter. The St. Petersburg correspondent of 
the Nerv York Herald, cabled on August 20, 1914, the particulars of 
a revolutionary outbreak in Prague which never took place: "The 
KieflF correspondent of the Novoe Vremya sends details of an uprising 
in Bohemia, when Czech Polish troops shot down their German offi- 
cers, shouting, 'Down with William! Down with Austria! Long live 
Russia ! ' Prague for a whole day was in the hands of the mutineers. 
The next day the Austrians, who had been reinforced, reentered the 
city and took fearful reprisals. Every Cech caught in the street was 
killed. The river Moldavia, it is declared, ran red with Cech blood. 
The finest monuments in the city were destroyed and shops were pil- 
laged. A new uprising occurred two days later, followed by fresh re- 
prisals. Among the victims was Dr. Kramarzh, M. Klofatch, a pro- 
fessor Masaryk, who was executed in the citadel. A similar fate is 
believed to have overtaken the Russian consul, Mr. Zhukovsky." 


able map of Central Europe. This map showed the 
racial boundaries of the reborn state and marked 
the strategic positions of the Cechoslovak troops 
astride the Trans-Siberian railroad in Russia. The 
map was placed in front of the Public Library on 
Fifth Avenue and Forty-second Street. Thousands 
of New Yorkers passing by daily were compelled to 
take notice of the map. Who are the Cechoslovaks? 
Are they a faction of the Bolsheviks? Are they re- 
lated to the Bohemians? What connection, if any, 
is there between the Bohemians living on the up- 
per east side of New York and the Bohemians in 
Greenwich Village? Many a grown-up New Yorker 
learned his primer in Cechoslovak history by study- 
ing the map. From New York the map traveled to 
inland cities, to repeat there the errand of education 
it performed so admirably on Fifth Avenue. 

At first it was confidently expected that the lib- 
eration of the race from thralldom would come 
from the east. The Russians were blood-brothers; 
they freed the Serbs and the Bulgarians, and they 
would redeem the Cechoslovaks next. Hence the 
propagandists concentrated their efforts on Russia. 
The Russian front collapsing, however, owing to 
Bolshevik betrayal, the center of activity was 
shifted to Paris. Two trusted lieutenants of Mas- 
aryk took charge of matters in the French capi- 
tal. Dr. Edward Benes (first Minister of Foreign 
Affairs) and the late General Milan R. Stefanik 
(first Minister of War). 




E>esigned by Vojta Preissig, Wentworth Institute, Boston 


An important conference was held in Cleveland 
ir^October, 191 5, between the leaders of the Alli- 
ance and the Slovak League. Complete accord was 
reached and the two race groups, Cechs and Slo- 
vaks, agreed to work hand in hand, in pursuance 
o( one aim under one supreme leadership. 

/February ^, 1917, a meeting was arranged in 
CFicago between the Catholic Party and the repre- 
sentatives of the Alliance. The Catholics expressed 
themselves as willing to share in the work of the 
Alliance and the Slovak League, but, standing fast 
on the ground of belief, how could they collaborate 
with the other side which held to unbelief? The 
Reverend Oldrich Zldmal, a priest from Cleveland, 
took a dissenting viewpoint. "The Cech of Catholic 
faith," he pleaded in the Farnik (The Parishioner), 
"without in any way jeopardizing his religion and 
church interests, has no good reason why he should 
sympathize with the present-day Austria." One 
version, said to be the true one, of why the Catholic 
Party wavered so long was, that the Right Rever- 
end Joseph M. Koudelka of Wisconsin, a Bishop of 
Cech nationality, in the first months of the war 
appended his signature to a public declaration, 
which sought to exculpate Austria and Germany 
for bringing on the war. Whatever the motive of 
the abstention, the Reverend Father Zldmal and 
other brave and patriotic priests prevailed in the 
end and the Catholic Party joined the Alliance. Thus 
at last all the factions, the liberals, the socialists, 



and the Catholics, were fraternally united and 
pledged to work for the liberation of the Father- 

Masaryk reached the Pacific Coast on his way 
from Russia, in April, 191 8. His arrival lent new 
zest to the drive which the propagandists were 
making to win American public opinion. Impressive 
receptions were given in his honor, in Chicago, 
New York, Baltimore, Cleveland; speeches were 
delivered before packed audiences in Carnegie Hall 
and elsewhere; interviews to newspapermen were 
granted. The publicity campaign took a sharp curve 
upward. Slowly but surely, Cechs and Slovaks were 
worming themselves into the headlines of the 
American press. 

Meantime Austrian statesmen still pretended to 
believe that there was no such thing as a Bohemian 
or a Cechoslovak question ; if there was, that it was 
one of internal Austro-Hungarian politics with 
which the Governments of Vienna and Budapest 
would concern themselves when the proper time 
came. But the principle of self-determination of 
nations — that government must rest upon the 
consent of the governed — was by this time rap- 
idly gaining converts in America. The statesmen 
of Austria and Hungary knew that the principle of 
self-determination would mark the doom of the 
Hapsburg Empire. 

June 30, 1 91 8, President Poincare of France jour- 
neyed to the war zone to make a formal presen- 



United States Trade Cbmtnissioner to the Cechoslovak Republic 

Publisher oi the Chicago "Svoraost" 



tation of the Cechoslovak flag to the soldiers of 
that nationaHty. On that occasion M. Pichon, the 
Foreign Secretary, speaking for the government of 
the RepubHc, "deemed it equitable and necessary 
to proclaim the rights of the Czechoslovak nation 
to independence." 

Recognition by the British Government is dated 
August 13, 1918. "In consideration of their efforts 
to achieve independence, Great Britain regards the 
Czechoslovaks as an allied nation and . . . recog- 
nizes the right of the Czechoslovak National Coun- 
cil as the supreme organ of Czechoslovak national 
interests and as the present trustee of the future 
Czechoslovak government. ..." 

September 2, 191 8, the United States Govern- 
ment through Secretary Lansing declared that "the 
Government of the United States recognizes that 
a state of belligerency exists between the Czecho- 
slovaks thus organized (that is, prosecuting their 
purposes for independence) and the German and 
Austro-Hungarian Empires. ... It also recognizes 
the Czechoslovaks." 

The Declaration of Independence, severing for- 
ever the ties binding Czechoslovakia to Austria- 
Hungary, bears date October 18, 191 8, in Paris, and 
is signed by Thomas G. Masaryk, Prime Minister 
and Minister of Finance; Milan R. Stefanik, Minis- 
ter of National Defense; and Edward BeneS, Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs and of the Interior. 

November 2, 191 8, delegates representing all 



political parties met in Geneva, Switzerland, and 
after adopting the draft of a constitution for the 
Cechoslovak Republic, patterned after that of the 
United States, elected unanimously as its first 
President, Thomas Garrigue Masaryk. 

A full and impartial account of the Liberation 
Movement has not yet been written. The events 
are too recent and the persons concerned too close 
to enable the historian to form a critical estimate 
of the degree of credit due. 




The theme of Cech emigration to the United States has been con- 
sidered from every conceivable viewpoint, not only by American 
Cechs, but by visitors from the mother country as well. The conclu- 
sion of writers from overseas not unfrequently discloses a lack of 
preparation, if not an utter non-comprehension of American realities; 
moreover, much ot the Americana printed abroad is light reading, 
calculated not so much to inform as to amuse the reader. 

Dr. Joseph Stolba: In North America. i8i pp. Prague. 1876. 

The earliest visitor from abroad, however, was not Dr. Stolba, but 
two Protestant ministers, Ludvik B. KaSpar and Hefman z Tardy. 
The first-named, Ka§par, prepared for his superiors a summary 
of the journey in A Report of a Pilgrimage to America in the Summer 
of 1869. 

Ladimir Klicel, in the initial numbers of the Hlas Jednoty Svo- 
hodomyslnych (no. I is dated February 19, 1872), collected data on 
pioneer immigration. 

Joseph V. Sl^dek, poet and Shakespearean scholar, wrote for the 
Prague Osv^ta and Lumir of his American experiences. "On a Cech 
Farm in Texas," by S14dek, appeared in Lumir in 1884. SlAdek was 
among the first to translate the American Constitution into Cech. 

For the information of the emigrant, Joseph Pastor published in 
Hamburg, in 1884, a monthly journal, Cech Settlements in America. 

John Palack;^, son of the historian Francis Palack<', compiled the 
United States of America. 142 pp. Prague. 1884. Palack^'s work deals 
wholly with statistics; Charles JondS assisted this author, who knew 
America by hearsay only, never having visited here. 

John Wagner: The tech Settlers in North America. 63 pp. Prague. 
1887. Unreliable and gossipy. 

Thomas Capek: Monuments of t^ech Immigration to America. 
First ed. 1889; second ed., revised, 112 pp. Omaha. 1907. 

Anton Peter Houit: The Cech Catholic Settlements in America. St. 
Louis. 1890. 

* All the sources quoted or referred to in the text or in the foot- 
notes are in the Cech language except those marked (e) English and 
(g) German. 



R. W. Turner: (e) "Emigration from Bohemia," U.S. Consular 
Reports. 1890. 

Charles Jon42: (e) " Bohemian and Hungarian Emigration to the 
United States," U.S. Consular Reports. 1890. 

Joseph Cerm^k: The History of America, after Benson J. Lossing 
and other sources; contains the lives and experiences of Cech sol- 
diers who fought in the Civil War. Chicago. 19 10. 

Thomas Capek: (e) "The Bohemians in America," The Chau- 
tauquan, October, 1 891. 

Joseph Ko?ensk^: Journey around the World in i8gs-g4. Refers 
to New York Cechs in v. i, pp. 43-50. Prague. 

John Wagner: Transoceanic Gossip. 155 pp. Prague. 1898. The 
same comment is pertinent to this book as to the author's other 

Reverends William Siller, Vdclav Prflcha, and R. M. de Castello: 
Memorial of the t^ech Evangelical Churches in the United States. 290 
pp. Chicago. 1900. 

Dr. Vladimir Nov&k; Journeying through the United States of 
America. 51 pp. Prague. 1900. 

Josephine Humpal-Zeman: (e) Bohemian Settlements in America. 
Industrial Commission Reports, 1901. 

J. Buzek: (g) " Das Auswanderungs-problem und die Regelung 
des Auswanderungswesen in Oesterreich," Zeitschrift fiir Volks- 
wirtschaft, Socialpolitik und Verwaltung, v. 10. Wien. 1901. 

J. J. Vlach: (e)"Our Bohemian Population," Proceedings of the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, pp. 159-62. Madison. 1902. 

E. A. Steiner: (e) "Character of the Bohemians in the United 
States," Outlook, April 25, 1903. 

Dr. George Guth: My Vacation in America. Feuilletons and Caus- 
eries from a Trip to the St. Louis Exposition. 137 pp. Prague. 1904. 

Josephine Humpal-Zeman : (e) " Bohemia: a Stir of its Social Con- 
science," The Commons, July, 1904. 

Vdclav Svarc: (e) "The Culture which the Slav offers America," - 
The Charities, July i, 1905. 

Francis Sailer: America. 47 pp. Prague. 1905. This travelogue by 
Sailer reads like a tale from the Thousand and One Nights fabulous 

Dr. John Auerhan: "The Cechs in America," Pokrokovd Revue. 
Prague, v. 7, no. 16, April, 1906, pp. 420-28; no. 17, pp. 481-86. Dr. 
Auerhan is another commentator, who knows America by hearsay 

John Rosick^: America as it is. Omaha. 



E. G. Balch: (e) "The Story of a Bohemian Pioneer," The Chau- 
tauquan, February, 1906. 

E. A. Steiner: (e) On the Trail of the Immigrant. New York. 1906. 

Marie Ziegler: Artist's Impressions. 68 pp. Prague. 1907. "A Press 
Agent's Impressions" would have been a more appropriate caption 
for this pamphlet abounding in magniloquent phrases of a journey 
through America, 

J. F. Votruba: "Americanization and American Cechs," Prc&skd 
Lidovd Revue, v. iv. Prague. 1908. 

E. G. Balch: (e) "The Peasant Background of our Slavic Fellow 
Citizens," The Charities, August 6, 19 10. 

John Habenicht: History of the dechs in America. 773 pp. St. Louis. 

E. G. Balch : (e) Our Slavic Fellow Citizens. 536 pp. New York. 1910. 

R. H. Schauffler: (e) "The Bohemian," Outlook, March, 191 1. 

Thomas Capek : Fifty Years of t^ech Letters (Journalism and Litera- 
ture) in America. From January i, i860, when the first Cech lan- 
guage newspaper was published in America, to January i, 1910. 
With supplements to the beginning of 191 1. 280 pp. New York. 191 1. 

" Emigration to America," The Moravskd Orlice. Brno, Moravia, 
January 16, 191 1. 

Anton Pimper: "The Cech Americans and their Cultural Prob- 
lem," The Samostatnost. Prague, July 20, 191 1. 

J. E. S. Vojan: Cech American Epistles. 192 pp. Chicago. 1911. 

Dr. Francis Drtina: Cultural Relations of American Czechs with 
their Motherland. A speech delivered in the presence of American 
Cechs in the MS§tansk4 Beseda, Prague, July 4, 1912. 

Dr. Francis Drtina: "The American Cechs," The Ceske Slovo. 
Prague, March i, 19 12. 

Dr. Frank Soukup: America; a series of pictures from American 
life. 363 pp. Prague. 19 12. 

Directory of Cechs in the United States. 104 pp. Compiled by E. St. 
VrAz with the collaboration, as to Chicago statistics, of J. Kramer 

Dr. John Auerhan, John Hejret, and A. Svojsik: The tech Emigra- 
tion. Reprint from Osveta. Prague. 1912. 

Dr. Emanuel Gregr: "A Discussion of Economic Subjects with 
American Cechs," in the M2§Iansk4 Beseda, Prague. Reported in 
the Prague Her old, June 30, 19 12. 

Count Francis Liitzow: (g) American Impressions, gleaned on a 
lecture tour on Bohemia, given in several institutions of learning. 
Prague. 191 2. ^ 



Francis Herites: American and Other Sketches from my Journeys. 
252 pp. Prague. 191 3. 

Dr. Anton Boh&6: Random chapters from Slavic statistics. 
" The Emigration of Slavs to America," The Slovansky Prehled, v. 15. 
433 pp. Prague. 1913. 

E. A. Steiner: (e) "Among the Bohemians," From Alien to Citizen, 
pp. 169-76. New York. 19 14. 

Sdrka B. Hrbkova: (e) The Bohemians in Nebraska. Nebraska 
State Historical Society. 48 pp. Lincoln. 1914. 

Gustav Haberman: From my Life. 299 pp. Prague. 1914. 

Anton Pimper: Emigration Problem. 80 pp. Prague. 

Dr. Navrdtil: Cech Physicians in America. 25 pp. Prague. 1914. 

Francis J. Swehla: (e) "The Bohemians in Central Kansas," 
Kansas Historical Society Collections, pp. 469-512. Topeka. 1915. 

B. S(h)imek: (e) The Bohemians in Johnson County. Iowa. lo pp. 

Archibald McClure: (e) " Leadership of the New America, Racial 
and Religious," Bohemians, pp. 47-60. New York. 1916. 

Karel Pelant: The Real America, v. i. 135 pp. Moravskd Os- 
trava, Moravia. 1919. 



Adams, E. A., 251 
Albieri, Paul, viii, 44, 206 
Alexy, Gustave, 250 
Americanization of children, 102; 

of names, 115 
Anarchism, 143; revolutionary 

propaganda, 145; no creative 

thinkers, 146 
Auerhan, John, 282, 283 

Babka, John J., 90 
Balatka, Hans, 39, 229 
Balch, Emily G., v, 283 
B4rta, Alois, 244 
Barto§ek, Theodore, 239 
B^m, Franta, 79, 106, 107 
BeneS, Edward, 140, 272, 274, 

Bene§, Vojta, 119, 215, 244, 267, 

Bilek, Thomas V., 8, 13 
Bittner, Barto§, viii, 133, 176, 

181, 202, 204, 205, 211 
Boh4(5, Anton, 284 
Bohemia, conditions in, about 

1848, 53 
Bohemia Manor in Maryland, 1 1 
Bohemian Voice, 261 
BohunSk, Rudolf, 235 
Bolton, Robert, 12 
Boreck^, John, viii, 36, 38, 54, 79, 

80, 121, 188, 189, 190, 229 
Bro2, John Stephen, 47, 209 
Building and loan associations 

in Cleveland, 75; in Chicago, 

Bujirkovi, F. S., 220 
Buiiata, Joseph, 138, 139, 219 

Burian, Carl, 233 

Business men; Jews carriers of 

Slavic names, 76 
Buzek, J., 27, 282 

Capek, Anna V., 220, 221 
Capek, Catherine M., 90 
Capek, John v., 41. 85, 133, 182; 

talented humorist, 200 
Capek (Chapek), Joseph H., 225 
Capek, Norbert F., 64 
Capek, Peter, 230 
Capek, Thomas, vi, xi, 48, 171, 
186, 187, 220, 221, 261, 27.2, 
281, 282, 283 
Capek, Thomas, Jr., 220 
Castello, R. M. de, 282 
Catholics build first church, 247; 
St. Louis center, 247; St. 
Prokop's parish, 247; early 
trials, 249; societies, 263 
Cechs, idealists, self-reliant, lit- 
erate, xi 
Cech-American National Com- 
mittee, 260 
Cech Colony (Ceskd Osada), 170 
Cech Press Bureau, 239 
Cech Humoristic Quartet, 232 
Cech Singing Quartet, 233 
Cech Society, 255, 256, 258 
Cermdk, Joseph, 157, 158, 159, 

202, 203, 282 
Cerven^, F. V., 255, 257 
Charvdt, Otakar, 161, 219, 220 
Children are American, 102 
ChlAdek, Adolph, 87 
Choral Societies, 254 
Chotek, Hugo, 42, 43 



Choura, Frank, 140, 151, 261 
Cigar-making in New York, 71, 

Cilinsk^, Josef, 255 
CfsaF, Jaroslav, 220 
Crane, Charles R., 235, 236 
Crime; personal violence and 
assault, 94; burglaries in Chi- 
cago, 94 
Czechoslovak (Bohemian) Na- 
tional Alliance center of Lib- 
eration movement, 267 

Danielovskf, Lt. F., 270 
Democratic party followers, 171, 

172, 185, 190 
Denis, Ernest, 3, 266, 271 
Destinn, Emmy, 233 
Dignowity, Anthony M., 88, 108, 

Distribution of stock in Middle 

West, 61 
Dongres, L. W., 219 
Dostal, Hynek, 64, 219 
Dr42dil, Anna, 230 
Drtina, Francis, 283 
DvoFdk, Antonin, 225, 226, 228, 

229, 230 

Egle, William Henry, editor, 23 
Eisner, Anton, 165 
Erben, J. B., 105, 134, 189 
Ersts (See Musical families) 

Farslc^, Oldfich, 235 
Faust, Albert B., 37, 109 
Fernow, Berthold, editor, 14 
Fierlinger, Capt. ZdSnko, 270 
Fisher, Harrison, 235 
Fisher, L. J., 84, 267 
Florjansk^, W., 234 
Foxlee, Ludmila Kucha?, 207 

Francl, F., 220 

Fraternal societies, 254; C.S.P.S., 

Friml, Rudolph, 226 

Geringer, August, 160, 166 
Geringer, Vladimir A., 64, 220 
Germans; settlements in U.S., 
109, no. III; Cechs mass in 
same centers, 112; hold social 
functions in German-owned 
halls, 56 
Gindely, Antonfn, 3 
Greer, George Cabell, 16 
Gregor, Frances, viii, 90, loi, 201, 

203, 204, 220 
Gr6gr, B., 219 
Gr^gr, Emanuel, 283 
Guth, George, 239, 282 

Habenicht, John, vi, 44, 49, 86, 

87, 121, 210, 246, 283 
Haberman, Gustav, 151, 238, 284 
HaiduSek, August, 50, 86 
Halik, St. J., 44 
Hanzlfk, Paul J., 93 
Havlasa, John, 206, 210, 211, 239 
Havli&k, Charles, x, 26,' 33, 48, 

49, 120, 125, 135, 136, 137, 

255, 257 
Havr^nek, A. J., 219 
Hazen, Charles D., 272 
Heink, Ernestine Schumann- 23 1 
Hejret, John, 283 
Here, Bernhard, 142 
Herites, Francis, 237, 284 
Heftnan, John, 38, 48, 211 
Herrman, Augustine, first known 
Cech immigrant, 9; lord Bohe- 
mia Manor, 11, 14, 15, 17, 105 
Hessoun, Joseph, 128, 247; fore- 
most prelate, 248, 251 



Heyberger, Anna, 244 
Hlav45, Vojtgch I., 230 
HlavAfek, Frank J., 142, 146, 

147, 149, 150, 168 
Hojda, John C, 134 
Hole^ek, F., 219 
Hollar, Wenceslaus, 7, 14 
Holmes, Burton, 262 
Holub, Emil, 237 
Hol^, Lt. Antonfn, 270 
Hork^, Karel, 216, 217, 218 
Horvath, Lt. Joseph, 270 
Housing conditions in New York 

City, 40; Cleveland, 43; Chica- 
go, 44 
Houska, Capt. V., 270 
HouSt, Anton Peter, 246, 281 
Hrbek, Jeffrey D., 220, 244 
Hrbkova, Sdrka B., 46, 208, 244, 

245, 284 
HrdliCka, AleS, 206, 220 
Hrub^s {See Musical families) 
Hub4Cek, Andrew, 82, 255, 257 
Hub&Cek, August, 77, 80, 257, 

Hub42ek, Joseph, 82, 257 
Hurban, Col. Vladimir, 270 
Hus, John, 19; greatest Cech 

born in Bohemia, 123; 244 
Hussitism issue in Bohemia, 122; 

deeper meaning, 123; lecture 

on, in Geneva, 266 
Hybe§, Josef, 140 

Illiteracy, xi 

Immigration after 1848, 28; even 

ratio males and females, 29; 

tables, 29, 30, 31; officials 

discourage, 33; pour through 

Hamburg, etc., 34 
Ingerle, Rudolf F., 235 
I§ka, Frank, 133, 212 

Janauschek, Frances R., 231 

Janda, Alois, 133, 181, 208 

Jandus, William, 139 

Janota, Frank, 151, 152 

JanouSek, Franta, 106 

Jews immigrate before others, 43 

JiCfnsk^, J. R., 46, 126, 220, 254 

Jirsa, Maj. Vladimir, 162 

Johnson, Amandus, 17 

Jon&§, Charles, ix, 39, 44, 64, 89, 
105, 106, 146, 165, 166, 167, 
168, 170, 174, 179, 180; "first 
Cech in America," 183, 184, 
185; buried in Prague, 186; 

187, 188, 190, 196, 197, 220, 
261, 281, 282 

Jon&S, Frederick, 85, 90 

Journalism preceded book litera- 
ture, 165; first newspaper, 165; 
in German script, 169; editor 
and his influence, 173; reading 
matter, 1 74 ; commercial aspect, 
177; salaries of editors, 179; 
live and die in poverty, 18 1 

Jung, V. A., 209 

Jurinek, Thomas, 130 

KalaS, Clementine, 230 
Kalda, Joseph, 134, 219 
Karel, John, viii, 38, 89 
Kdrnfk, J. J., 219, 243, 244 
KaSpar, Joseph, 225 
KaSpar, Ludvik B., 236, 281 
Kerner, R. J., 91, 221, 245 
Kissner, J. G., 246 
Kldcel, Ladimir, viii, 105, 121, 
122, 125, 128; arrives in Amer- 
ica, 130; expelled from college, 
131; dreamer and visionary, 
132; 133. 137. 176, 180, 181, 

188, 189; creates nothing in 
America, 191; suffers grinding 



poverty, 192; I93..I94. I97. 

208, 258, 281 
Kleych, Wenzel, 20 
Klofaf, Viclav J., 238, 273 
Knfzek, Charles, 244 
Kr^licek, V, 253 
Krejsa, Edward, 228 
Kochmann, Leo (Vive la Libert^), 

141, 142, 146 
Kocian, Jaroslav, 225 
Kohlbeck, Valentine, 246, 263 
Kolir, Victor, 226, 227 
Komensk^ (Comenius), John 

Amos, Bishop, 5, 6, 20 
Komen&ky Educational Clubs, 

Konop, Thomas, 90 
Konvalinka, John, 83, 86 
Kopeck^, Francis, Cechoslovak 

Consul General, 216 
Kopta, Flora P. Wilson, 225 
Kopta, Wenzel, 225 
Korbel, Francis, 256, 262 
Korbel, J. Mario, 234, 235 
Korensk^, Joseph, 10, 237, 282 
Korizek, Frank, 38, 166; Nestor 

of Cech journalism, 167; 168, 

169, 170, 178, 179, 187 
Ko§a?, Jarka, 235 
Kotouc, Otto, 47, 221 
Koudelka, Bishop Joseph M., ex- 
culpates Austria from war 

guilt, 275 
Koukol, Alois B., 244 
Kovi?, Joseph, 64 
Kov4rik, Alois, F., 92 
Kovifik, Joseph J., 226 
Kozel, Vlasta Charlotte (Pavla 

Cechovi), 207 
Krdl, J. J., 179, 186, 208, 220, 221 
Kramdr, Charles, 272, 273 
Krejsa, Antonie, 221 

Krejsa, Edward, 228 
Kricka, Cen^k, 239 
Kfikava, Josef, 256, 257 
Kroupa, Bohuslav, 236 
Krouzilka, William, 150 
Kryl and his Band, 223, 224, 225 
Kubelik, Jan, 225, 227, 233 
Kudlata, Vaclav, 149, 150, 151 
Kun, F., 249, 251, 252 
Kut^k, F. J., 216, 218 

Land ownership, source of wealth, 

Language; corruption of, 116; 

English dominant, 116 
Language schools, 241 ; supported 

by gifts, 243 ; teaching of Cech, 

Lassak, Francis W., 83 
Leitner, Karel, 224 
Lerando-Zelenka L., 221, 229, 

244, 245 
Letovsk^, John B., 38, 106, 167, 

178, 179, 180, 183 
Letovsk^, M. B., 89, 193 
Liberda, John, 20 
Lier, Milos, vi 

Lipovsk^ of Lipovice, Henry, 247 
Literature, chiefly translations, 

164; first book, 165; writers in 

English, 221 
Ludvik's Theatrical Troupe, 45, 

Luk4s, A., 235 
Lusk, Marie Koupal, 235 
Liitzow, Count, 231, 262, 283 
McClure, Archibald, 284 
Mahler, Gustav, 231 
Mallery, Charles Payson, 9 
Marchant, Francis P., 272 
Marriage with Teutons and 

others, 96 



Martfnek, Joseph, 219 
Masaryk, Alice G., 45, 272 
Masaryk, Thomas G., 135, 237, 

238, 265, 266, 268, 272, 273, 

276, 277, 278 
MaSek, Matthew, 160 
MaSek, Vojta, viii, 38, 39, 80 
Mashek, Nan, 39 
Mat^jka, J. V., 261 
Matulka, Jan, 235 
Matura, Rose, 234 
Meilbek, Leo, 89, 138 
M5kota, Beatrice M., 221 
Melichar, A. C, 212 
Mich^lek, Anton, 89 
Mihal6czy, G6za, 156 
Mikolanda, Jacob, 140, 148, 149 
Mfkova, Marie, 227 
Miller, Kenneth D., 49 
Mil^, Exlward, 140, 150 
Mineberger, V. (Harris Zachar), 

64. 134 
Mischka (My§ka), Joseph, 36, 

Mi§kovsk;p^, Louis F., 242, 244 
MokrejS, John, 227 
Moravians, 20, 23, 24 
Moravian Cechs favor Texas, 48 ; 

are conservative, 120 
Moravian Church, 19; in Georgia, 

23; Pennsylvania, 24 
Motik, Libuse S., 268 
Mottl, Jacob, 77 
MrA&k, Frank, viii, 106, 178, 

179, 182, 183 
Mrdzek, Joseph, 235 
Mucha, Alfons M., 235 
Mudra Band, 223 
Musical families: the OndH&ks, 

223; Ersts of Chicago, 224; 

Hrubys and Zdmec' ol 

Cleveland, 224, 228 

Nddhern^, E. V., 235 
Namier, Lewis B., 272 
Ndprstek, Vojta, viii, 38, 39, 105; 

protagonist of liberalism, 125; 

planned Cech community, 126; 

admirer of America, 127; 136; 

originator of Cech newspaper 

in U.S., 168; 169, 255, 256, 

257. 258 
Navr4til, Dr., 284 
Nebesk^, VAclav, 258 
Neisser, George, 21 
Neuzil, Prokop, 246 
Niederle, Lt. Miloslav, 270 
Nigrin, J. V., 15, 64, 221 
Novd&k, Otakar, 227 
NovAk, Anton, 39, 64, 166, 193 
Nov^k, Vladimir, 282 
Nov^, Frederick G., 91 
Nov^, J. J., 219 
Noyes, George R., 244 

Oberlin College, 242 

Occupation. Farmers predomin- 
ate, 69; musicians numerous, 
70; cigarmakers in New York, 
71, 72, 73; pearl button mak- 
ers, 74; table of occupations, 
81 ; tailors in Chicago, 84; Cech 
intelligence, 85 

Oliverius, John A., viii, 105, 106, 
172, 179; "newspaper grave- 
digger," 190, 191 

Ond?i&k, Emanuel, 223 

Ondficek, Francis, 223, 225 

Ort, Henry, 254 

Oswald, Josef, 254 

OumiroflF, Bogea, 233 

OuSka, Thomas F., 235 

Paca, William, of Cech lineage, 



Pac4k, Louis, 220 

Pa&s, Joseph, 151 ; Cech Valjean, 

152. 153 

Paclt, Cengk, 159, 160 

Palack^, John, vii, 281 

Palda, L. J., viii, 46, 72, 135: 
father of Cech socialism, 137; 
138, 139, 142, 147, 182, 189, 
194, 195, 214, 260, 261 

Pantata, 115 

Pastor, Joseph, viii, 40, 121, 122, 
127, 128, 133, 179, 182; anti- 
clerical, 186; 187, 196, 216, 281 

Pavlfkovd, Bo2ena, 219 

Pearl button makers, 74, 75 

Pecival, Joseph F., 64, 267 

Pecka, Joseph B., 146, 148 

Pelant, Charles, 239, 284 

Pergler, Charles, 212; accredited 
to U.S., 213; eloquent speaker, 
214; 220, 221, 272 

Pescheck, Adolph Christian, 20 

Petrt^l, August, 235 

Petrielka, VAclav J., 219 

Philipse (Fly psen), Frederick, 12; 
"Bohemian merchant prince," 
13; 14, 18 

Pimper, Anton, 283 

Pfseck^, Ferdinand (Mal'fn, Ji?i), 
220, 270 

Pisek, Godfrey R., 221 

Pisek, Vincent, 221, 248, 250 

Piviny, Eugene, 155 

Pohl, VAcIav, 255, 257 

Pol4k, Emil J., 227 

PoldSek, Albin, 234, 235 

PondSlf&k, Joseph, 148 

Prantner, E. F., 221 

Pregler, Anton, 44, 86 

Preissig, Vojta, 234, 273 

Proch^zka, Charles, 165 

Prochizka, J., 272 

Prohibition party, no adherents, 

Prokosch, B., 244 

Protestant exiles, 4; in New 
Netherlands, 9; Virginia, 15; 
Barbadoes Islands, 17; cling to 
proscribed faith, 19; in Penn- 
sylvania, 23; Cechs a Protest- 
ant nation, 124; difficulties of, 
249; organized in U.S. by non- 
Cechs, 250; mother church, 

Prflcha, J., 242 

Prflcha, Vdclav, 248, 282 

Pgenka, J. R., 206, 218 

Quill (pseudonym), 204 

Raboch, Wenzel A., 225 
Ra§fn, Alois, 272 
Rau, Albert G., 21 
Recht, Charles, 221 
Reichel, W. C, 24 
Reincke, Abraham, 24 
Reiser, Alois, 226, 227 
Religious defection, 119; reasons, 

122; influence of press, 127; 

clergymen renounce faith, 130 
fi.epiS (Revis), William, brings 

libel suit, 128 
Republican party followers, 171, 

172, 190 
Riis, Jacob, 41 

Ringsmuth, F. K., 165, 200, 201 
Robbins, Jane E., 41 
Rosewater, Edward, viii, 48, 89, 

90, 180, 181, 199 
Rosick^, John, viii, 48, 166, 198, 

199, 209, 259, 261, 282 
Rosick;^, Rose, 64, 207, 221 
Rupp, I. Daniel, 24 
Rfl2iCka, Rudolph, 234 



RychlJk, Charles, 228 
Rynda, John, 45, 246 

St. Margaret's Congress, 140 

St. Prokop College, 243, 244 

Sabath, A. J., 90 

Sadilek, F. J., 52 

Sal4k, Caroline J., 64 

Sailer, Francis, 282 

Saloonkeeper, pioneer business- 
man, 77; influence, 77; not 
always a liability, 78 

Schauffler, H. A., 242, 250, 251 

Schauffler, R. H., 283 

Scheiner, Josef, 239, 254 

Schlesinger (Slesinger), A. L., 47, 

Schwab, Ludvik, 227 

Schweinitz, Edmund de, 21 

Sealsfield, Charles (Karl Postl), 


Segregation of nationals, 58 

Serp^, St., 219 

Settlements, farming, in Wis- 
consin, 36; alluring advertise- 
ments, 37 ; in footsteps of Ger- 
mans, 112; city settlements, 
36; New York a jumping-oflf 
ground, 40; St. Louis first me- 
tropolis, 41; Chicago wrests 
scepter, 42; separate commun- 
ities, 105, 126; Slavic Congress, 
105; proposed emigration to 
Amur, 106 

Severa, W. F., 177, 261 

Shimek (§imek),:tB., 47, 64, 92, 
93, 159, 221, 261, 284 

Siller, William, 248, 282 

Siller, Joseph, 49, 86 

Sinkmajer, Joseph, 221, 246 

Sfpek, Maj. John, 270 

Skaloud, F. J., 220 

Skarda, Anna, 90 

Skarda, Frank, viii, 90, 137, 138, 
141, 147, 182 

SlAdek, Hynek, 189 

Slddek, Joseph V., 179, 189, 236, 

Slavic Alliance, 260 

Slavik, John, 77 

Slezak, Leo, 233 

Slovansk4 Osada, 107 

Smaha, Joseph, 231, 232 

Smetana, Augustine, excommu- 
nicated, 131 

Smetanka, Jaroslav F., 215, 216, 

220, 221, 267 

Snajdr, Vaclav, viii, 121; for 33 
years editor Dennice Novo- 
vgku, 129; 167, 177, 187, 188, 
189, 191, 192, 208, 261 

Socialism introduced, 137; com- 
rades organize, 138; influx of 
socialists, 140 

Society for Promotion of Higher 
Education (Matice VySSlho 
VzdSl^nl), 261 

Sokol Excursion, 239 ; Sokols, 254 

Soldiers in Civil War, 157; Span- 
ish Campaign, 160; World 
War, 160 

Sosel, Joseph, 85 

Soukup, Anthony M., 221 

Soukup, Francis, 151, 153, 196, 

221, 238, 283 

§pa&k, Capt. Jaromfr, 270 
Spaniel, Lt. Oldfich, 270 
Stefanik, Gen. Milan R., 238, 

239, 270, 274, 277 
Steiner, Edward A., 122, 282, 283, 

Steiner, Josef, 141 
StSpina, J. F., 267 
StSrba, A., 235 



Stolba, Joseph, 237, 281 
Straka, Adolph William, 185 
Stransky, Josef, 226 
Str&nsk^, Paul of Zapskd 

Str&nka, 6. 
Svarc, Vdclav (Ven), 282 
Svoboda, Vincent, 235 
Svojanov communities, planned 

by KlAcel, 132 
Svojslk, A., 283 
Swehla, Francis J., 51, 284 
S^kora, Joseph W., 43, 85, 86, 

105, 241 

Tabor, Edward O., 221 
Tardy, He?man z, 236, 281 
Theatricals, amateur, popular, 

Thuma, Joseph F., 41 
Tichy, F., 135, 195 
Triner, Joseph, 177 
Tflma, Cech Columbus, 25 
Tflma, F. Sokol, 239 
Tup^, Ladislav, 64, 211 
Turner, R. W., 282 
Trojan, J. A., 220 
Tvrzicky, Joseph, 215, 216, 217, 

267, 283 

Urban, Ladislav, 221, 227 

Van(5ura, Henry, 3 

Vangk, Vaclav, 135 

Vaska, Bedfich, 224 

Va§kQ, B. O., 263 

Veleminsk;^, Charles, ix, 240 

Vesel^, Kosmas, 244 

Vickers, Robert H., 261 

Visitors from abroad, 236, 237, 
238, 239, 240; Czechoslovak 
ministers in America, 238 

Vlach, J. J., 39, 282 

Vojan, J. E. S., 41, 45, 76, 119, 
186, 204, 216, 217, 221, 267, 

Volav^, Margaret, 227 

Vondrou§, J. C, 234 

Voska, E. v., 270 

Votruba, J. F., 239, 283 

Vrdnek, John, 208, 209 

Vr^, E. St., 209, 283 

Wagner, John, 159, 203, 281, 282 
Watson, R. W. Seton, 272 
Wetch6, Ludmila Vojd&k, 227 
Wiener, Leo, 245 
Wilson, James Grant, II 
Wilson, President Woodrow, 162 
Winlow, Clara V., 64, 90, 221 
Woytisek, V. W., 261 

Yurka, Blanche, 233 

Zdme^nik (See Musical families) 

laxskk, Erna, 233 

Zdrfibek, F. B., viii, 44, 45, 121, 
128; 35 years editor Svornost, 
129; 132, 133, 134, 150, 164, 
166, 176, 179; Speaker of Lib- 
eral Union, 182; 189, 196; not 
creative writer, 197; 198, 208, 
219, 221, 252, 261 

Zelen^^, John, 92 

Zeman, Josephine Humpal-, viii, 
44, 201 ; suffragette leader, 202, 

Zeyer, Julius, 126 

Ziegler, Marie, 283 

Zldmal, Oldrich, 275 

Zmrhal, Jaroslav J., 211, 267, 272 

Zmrhal, Lt. Charles, 270 

Zoula, Norbert, 140, 146, 147, 

Zvoldnek, Joseph, 252 

Cambridge: . Massachusetts 
u . s . A 

E Capek, Thomas 

184. The Cechs (Bohemians) in 

B67C29 America